According to NASA and experts in Astronomy, the Blood Moon that will occur in September, 2015, is nothing remarkable; this phenomenon happens quite frequently and we should not read anything supernatural into this event.
When Jesus arrived on the earth the first time, there were “Signs in the Heavens,” in the form of a planet conjunction. This phenomenon was significant enough that several astronomers from the east made a long and difficult journey to Israel. There is credible evidence that these “Wise Men,” believed that this bright “star” that had appeared, was a fulfillment of the prophecies of Isaiah and Micah, which foretold that the promised Messiah would arrive on the earth at that time.
History also records a supernatural event that took place from 12 noon to 3 pm, on the day that Jesus was dying for the sins of the world on the cross. This event is documented by secular as well as Biblical sources.
Roman historian, Tertullian, describes an account by Phlegon, that a Total Solar Eclipse had taken place during the time that Jesus was crucified at Jerusalem.
“In the same hour (as the crucifixion), too, the light of day was withdrawn, when the sun at the very time was in his meridian blaze. Those who were not aware that this had been predicted about Christ, no doubt thought it an eclipse. You yourselves have an account of the world portent still in your archives (Phlegon’s account).”[1a]
￼The “archives,” that Phlegon refers to, are the Annals of Rome. These are the official records of history that were meticulously kept at the Roman Senate. This is corroboration of the New Testament text that Jesus was on the cross, crucified, died, and that darkness took place at the specific time that the narrative of the New Testament writers says that it happened.[1b]
Julius Africanus also records that Roman historian, Thallus, stated that the darkness that took place during Jesus’ crucifixion could not have been caused by a solar eclipse. The feast of Passover is always observed on the 14th day of Nissan (April), during a full moon. A solar eclipse can only occur during a new moon. It is astronomically impossible for a total eclipse of the sun to occur, concurrent with a full moon. [1c] Therefore, the darkness from noon to 3pm, that is reported in the New Testament, could not have been caused by a total solar eclipse.
￼If the Sun was obscured and darkness fell over the entire earth for three hours, and it was not a Total Solar Eclipse, what was it? History records that it took place and science cannot explain it. The Bible simply states that God caused this event in response to the death of His Son.
On the same evening of Jesus crucifixion, historians also confirm a second event that is recorded by both the Bible and secular historians; on the evening of that same day; a Total Lunar Eclipse occurred, displaying a “Blood Moon.” This event was confirmed by Astronomer, Colin J. Humphreys by use of computer models which recreated the astronomical events that took place in 32 A.D.
Too many coincidences
Scientists will tell us that these three occurrences are simply coincidences that just happened to take place during the time of Jesus birth, and death. They say that they are perfectly natural phenomenon that can be explained by science and astronomy; We don’t need God, nor the Bible to explain what happened.
As we look at the thousands of times in the history of the world when supernatural events have taken place, there are just too many to conclude that they were all coincidences.
The following are the facts that surround the signs in the heavens that took place when Jesus arrived on the earth the first time, at His death, and are predicted to take place once again when He returns to earth.
The Kings who came from the East had read the Hebrew prophecies concerning the coming of the Messiah. They were also students of Astronomy, as they carefully studied the movement of the constellations in the heavens and observed a conjunction of planets, which caused them to believe that a King was about to be born in Israel.
Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem… —Matthew 2:1-12
First of all, notice that this verse does not say that there were three wise men. There were probably many, many of these men who came to Jerusalem. The term wise men is probably not the best translation of this verse because these men were really Astrologers. They studied the stars, as they moved through the visible sky, and they noticed something incredible. Apparently, these men were also students of Hebrew Prophecy, and they believed that these prophecies were inspired and written by God to announce the coming of the Messiah of Israel.
It is likely that these wise men from the east had read the prophecy from book of Micah that predicted the coming of the Messiah at Bethlehem:
But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting. —Micah 5:2
Along with their study of the Scriptures, these men also observed an event in the movement of the stars which led them to believe that this King, described in Malachi’s prophecy, was about to be born in Bethlehem.
The wise men saying, “Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him.” When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born. —Matthew 2:2-4
Notice that these men, who came from the East, had followed a “sign” in the heavens, which they attributed to the fulfillment of Micah’s prophecy. He would be the Greatest King the world has ever known.
Matthew does not define how many wise men came from the East. Notice also that he also does not mention their names, nor does he provide any details about how they made their journey.
Over the years, it has generally been assumed that the wise men (or magi) were three in number, because Matthew 2:11 makes mention of three gifts:
“they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh.”
No place in the Bible does it describe how many men there were. In some of the Eastern religions, they have claimed that perhaps up to twelve men, and their entourage made the journey to Bethlehem.[1d] The names of the Magi, “Gaspar,” “Melchior,” and “Balthasar,” do not come from the Bible and did not appear in Christian literature until over five hundred years after the birth of Jesus.
Nothing in the Bible describes the wise men as coming on camels (or any other animal). They may have made their journey from the East on foot for all we know. It is for certain that these men were educated—perhaps some of the most brilliant of their day. Quite a contrast from today, where the highly educated consider the historical record of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection as a “myth” and condescend those who believe such things as foolish and naive.
However many wise men there were and by what means they arrived in Bethlehem, the Bible tells us they arrived after the birth of Jesus and most likely, slightly before He turned one year of age. Contrary to the traditional Christmas story, the Magi came to see their baby after Joseph, Mary and Jesus were back in Jerusalem; not at Bethlehem during the manger scene that is depicted in the gospels earlier.
Now when the days of her (Mary’s) purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord. —Luke 2:22
Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem. —Matthew 2:1
And when they had come into the house, they saw the young Child with Mary His mother, and fell down and worshiped Him. And when they had opened their treasures, they presented gifts to Him: gold, frankincense, and myrrh. —Matthew 2:11
What was the star or “sign” in the heavens which led this entourage of astrologers to believe that the Messiah had been born in Bethlehem?
What did they see? What were they following? Astronomers and other experts have proposed a variety of objects which they claim could have been the Christmas star.
Some claim that the star the Magi saw was a comet, an exploding star, or a grouping of planets. Others suggest that the star that was observed was a miracle created especially by God for this occasion.
Today, by the use of computer models of the Stars and planets, Astronomers can look backwards into the past history of the heavens and see what the stars and planets looked like 2,000 years ago. Experts simply run a computer program of the current movement of the stars and planets, in reverse, back to the point in past history that they want to observe.
It is reasonable to believe that the Star of Bethlehem could be observed by sky watchers, elsewhere in the world, not only by the Magi. Although these men are known as wise men or kings, they were actually priests who relied on astrology.
Between September of 3 B.C. and June of 2 B.C., Jupiter passed by the star Regulus in the constellation Leo. Jupiter reversed itself and then passed Regulus again, turning back to pass the star a third time. This was a remarkable event since astrologers considered Jupiter the “Kingly Planet” and regard Regulus as the “Kings Star.”
The crowning touch came on June 17, when Jupiter seemed to approach so close to Venus, that even without magnification, the two looked like a single star with greatly increased brilliance. This whole sequence of events could have been “signs” enough for at least three astrologers to go to Jerusalem and ask Herod: “Where is He that is born King of the Jews, for we have seen his star in the east and are come to worship him.”
￼What was the Star of Bethlehem? Was it just a legend? Was it a Miracle? Was it a real astronomical event that actually happened when Jesus was born?
The Old Testament scriptures describe the stars as revealing God’s glory and handiwork.
The heavens declare the glory of God; And the firmament shows His handiwork. –Psalms 19:1
Your mercy, O LORD, is in the heavens… —Psalms 36:5
And the heavens will praise Your wonders, O LORD… —Psalms 89:5
When He prepared the heavens, I (wisdom) was there. —Proverbs 8:27
And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth. —Joel 2:30
What we can assume regarding the star that the Magi saw:
• It was something new which had not been seen before.
• The wise men saw it and considered it significant enough to travel a great distance from their homes in the East.
• The star appeared twice.
Was the star a single object, or was it two or more objects which were gathered together?
• We know that Jesus rode into Jerusalem on April 6th 32 A.D.
• We know that Jesus was 33 ½ years old when He was Crucified.
• This makes the year of Jesus’ birth 3 B.C.
The sign that the Magi saw in the heavens was certainly not a Comet, as these types of formations were thought to be evil.
Was it a Meteor? A Meteor cannot linger over Bethlehem; they are short-lived events.
Was the object a Supernovae? This is a possibility, except that we have no indications from computer models that a supernovae happened during this time.
This leaves only one possibility:
The Magi were probably Babylonian Astrologers who studied the movements of stars and planets. If we look at the computer models for 2-3 B.C., we see that there is a very exciting possibility.
During this time, there was a conjunction or joining together of two large planets—Venus and Jupiter—which might have looked like one single bright star to anyone observing the night sky at that time. It is interesting that the conjunction of these two stars which formed the sign for a King to be born was in the constellation Leo, which from the Biblical account, is a representation of Jesus as the Lion of the tribe of Judah.
It is common knowledge in the study of Astronomy that as the earth and other planets orbit the sun, they will sometimes come into alignment together in what is called “a conjunction.” When this happens, the planets which are in the same line together, appear to be a single star, even though they may be millions of miles apart.
Near the time of Jesus’ birth on September 29th, 3 B.C., this conjunction or joining together of the large planets Jupiter and Venus, took place at the end of August of that year.
The Magi had their own pagan names for these stars. This would have been a very important alignment of celestial bodies, causing these men to believe that the Hebrew scriptures were being fulfilled: a King, the Messiah predicted in the Hebrew Bible, was about to be born.
Because the Earth is moving around the sun and completing its rotation, faster than Jupiter or Venus. As Earth approaches and overtakes Jupiter, it appears as if this large planet is moving backwards, or stopping in the night sky. The same phenomenon occurs when you are traveling down the freeway and your car passes another car. As you look in your rearview mirror, the car which you have passed appears as if it is moving backwards against the background, even though both you and the car are still moving forward.
This is called “Retrograde Motion.”
When Jupiter and Venus aligned themselves near the time of Jesus’ Birth, they appeared to slow down over Bethlehem, stop, and then move again. * It is interesting to me that this natural phenomenon was used by God to portray a supernatural event.
Finally, in June of the next year, about the time that the Magi arrived in Jerusalem, Jupiter and Venus are still close together. These two stars appeared as one huge bright light in the night sky. This was most likely what the Magi observed.
These Astronomers from the East saw this alignment of Venus and Jupiter as a sign that the King, predicted in the Old Testament Book of Micah, had arrived (Micah 5:2).
Then Herod, when he had secretly called the wise men, determined from them what time the star appeared. And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the young Child, and when you have found Him, bring back word to me, that I may come and worship Him also.” When they heard the king, they departed; and behold, *the star which they had seen in the East went before them, till it came and stood over where the young Child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. —Matthew 2:7-10
Of course, Herod did not want to worship Jesus. He was in fear that should a new King of the Jews be born, he would lose his title as “King of the Jews.” Herod was so paranoid that someone from his own family would try to take his crown, it was reported that he had his wife and some of his sons killed. It was said of Herod that: “It is safer to be one of Herod’s pigs than one of his sons.”
Notice that this star, as it is in Retrograde motion in verse 9, “came and stood still over the place Jesus was born.”
This is a confirmation that the alignment of Jupiter and Venus happened to cause this brightness. This event actually was not a star; it was the alignment of two very large planets. Jupiter is 318 times the size of the earth. It is interesting that on March 12-13, 2012, both Jupiter and Venus again came very close to each other and created a similar event. Could this be a signal that Jesus is about to return to Earth again?
￼Science Confirms This Event
Today, we have the technology to confirm, by computer models, that an alignment of Jupiter and Venus did occur on June 27th, 2 B.C. The computer simulations also confirm that between September of 3 B.C. and June of 2 B.C., Jupiter passed by the star Regulus in the constellation Leo. It reversed itself and then passed Regulus again, then turned back and passed the star a third time. This is interesting because Jesus was born on September 29, 3 B.C.
Computer models confirm the Biblical account of the star over Bethlehem during the time described in Matthew’s Gospel. This was the sign that the wise men from the East were following, which they believed was an indication that a Great King was about to be born. Today, we know that in this same year, Jesus was born on or about September 29th of that year, when this alignment of stars occurred.
The Sun, Obscured During Jesus Crucifixion
There were stunning and supernatural forces that were present during the crucifixion of Jesus which existed without a natural cause. At no time in the history of the man has darkness overtaken the earth in the middle of the day, apart from a solar eclipse. During the crucifixion of Jesus, a profound event occurred that many attributed to the moon obscuring the sun’s light upon the earth. Unknown to the observers of this spectacle was the fact that during the particular phase that the moon, a solar eclipse was not possible. How could it become dark at noon and remain that way for three hours—specifically during the time that Jesus was on the cross, dying for the sins of the world? When we investigate the records that were written during that time, we find that this darkness was chronicled by several sources.
The fact that Phlegon believed that this darkness had resulted from an eclipse, lends great credibility to the authenticity of the events of Jesus crucifixion. The New Testament scriptures describe a period of darkness from noon to three pm, during the time that Jesus was being crucified.
Now it was about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. —Luke 23:44
If the crucifixion was a hoax, it is doubtful that so many different writers, secular and biblical, would comment on the darkness which took place at that time, and link this event to Jesus crucifixion.
The secular record of history states that during the time when Jesus was under crucifixion, the moon was full; and there was a lunar eclipse that took place from 6:20 p.m. to 6:50 p.m. This would make a solar eclipse impossible during the time when Jesus was dying on the cross from 12-3 p.m. The darkness that occurred during that time was supernatural and not from any known natural event.
Incredibly, this event was predicted by the prophet Amos, more than 600 years before this took place.
And it shall come to pass in that day,” says the Lord GOD, “That I will make the sun go down at noon, And I will darken the earth in broad daylight… —Amos 8:9
The fact that the Bible could predict an astronomical event that would occur at a specific date and time, is staggering to comprehend. God not only caused this darkness to occur, He planned it ahead of time. In this case, the Lord predicted the phenomenon of darkness at noon, more than six centuries in advance of its manifestation. Notice that Amos predicted that this darkness would begin at noon. Luke records the specific moment that the darkness began: the sixth hour. In Jewish time-keeping, the first hour of the day is 6 am, the sixth would be 12 noon.
Even more significant, is a comment made by the prophet Amos a little further in verse:10
I will turn your feasts into mourning, And all your songs into lamentation; I will bring sackcloth on every waist, And baldness on every head; I will make it like mourning for an only son, And its end like a bitter day. —Amos 8:10
The cause of this darkness at noon, will be due to “mourning for an only Son…” God, and those who loved Jesus—mourning for Him as He suffers and died.
Amos speaks of Jesus, as the Son of God, dying during the time that God supernaturally causes darkness over Jerusalem.
Those who do not subscribe to the miraculous portions of the Bible, have great difficulty accepting that the sun could be obscured and darkness could overtake the day at noon as a supernatural event. Scientists confirm that an eclipse was impossible during this time of the month, due to the moon in its full stage. Historians have written extensively that this darkness took place—precisely at the time that Jesus was suffering upon the cross. What other explanation could there be, if a solar eclipse was not possible, other than a supernatural event?
Imagine the entire earth growing completely dark at noon and remaining in darkness for three hours. Of course in some parts of the earth, it would already be dark. This prophecy is applicable to those places on earth that would normally experience daylight, suddenly being covered in deep darkness. Luke and Amos describe the darkness as covering all the earth. At the suffering and death of Jesus, the earth would be covered by the same darkness that was poured into Jesus as He became sin for us, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
￼What Was the Darkness That Covered the Earth?
There are many extra-biblical sources outside of the Bible that describe a period of darkness over the earth during the time that the gospels detail Jesus’ crucifixion.
In a commentary by Tertullian in his “Apologeticus,” he writes that there were many who were in attendance at the crucifixion of Jesus who did not know the prophecies of Amos and Isaiah which describe the darkness that would occur. They believed that the darkness was an eclipse. Tertullian wrote that the evidence for this event was still available in the archives of Roman history.
This claim by Tertullian is an extraordinary secular confirmation, that the record of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection, existed in the records of Rome as early as the first century.
One of the first historians of this period, Rufinus of Aquileia, as a part of the work he completed on Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, contains a section that describes a defense given to Maximus by Lucian of Antioch before his death by martyrdom in 312 A.D. This Roman writer was quite certain that the darkness described by the gospels, that is said to have happened at the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, was a part of the historical record of the Roman archives.
“Search your writings and you shall find that in Pilates time, when Christ suffered, the sun was suddenly withdrawn and darkness followed”.
This statement, by a Roman historian, not only confirms the New Testament account that darkness occurred at Jesus’ crucifixion but also serves as proof that documents, other than the Bible, exist in the records of antiquity, which describe the crucifixion of a man called “The Christ.”
Christian historian Paulus Orosius (375 – 418) wrote:
“Jesus voluntarily gave himself over to the Passion but through the impiety of the Jews, was apprehended and nailed to the cross, as a very great earthquake took place throughout the world, rocks upon mountains were split, and a great many parts of the largest cities fell by this extraordinary violence. On the same day also, at the sixth hour of the day, the Sun was entirely obscured and a loathsome night suddenly overshadowed the land, as it was said, ‘an impious age feared eternal night.’ Moreover, it was quite clear that neither the Moon nor the clouds stood in the way of the light of the Sun, so that it is reported that on that day the Moon, being fourteen days old, with the entire region of the heavens thrown in between, was farthest from the sight of the Sun, and the stars throughout the entire sky shone, then in the hours of the day or rather in that terrible night. To this, not only the authority of the Holy Gospels attest, but even some books of the Greeks.”
When the prophet Joel penned his famous prophetic verse in chapter 2, we were all surprised to read in the New Testament that Peter had declared this prophecy was being fulfilled in the text of the Book of Acts, even as he spoke.
And it shall come to pass afterward That I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions. And also on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days. —Joel 2:28-29
Peter’s Declaration of Fulfillment
But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and said to them, “Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words. For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day. 16 But this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: ‘And it shall come to pass in the last days,’ says God, ‘That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh;Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams. And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy. I will show wonders in heaven above And signs in the earth beneath: Blood and fire and vapor of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved.’ ” —Acts 2:14-21
Peter not only attributed Joel Chapter 2, verses 28 and 29 to the birth of the church, he also ascribed the rest of Joel’s prophecy to the events that were taking place, in Acts Chapter 2.
And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness And the moon into blood…” —Joel 2:30-31
Unlike many of Peter’s declarations that were directed by his flesh, the words that he spoke here, in Acts Chapter 2, were clearly directed by the Holy Spirit, as he made these observations after the Holy Spirit was given on Pentecost. Peter was certain that the darkness which covered Jerusalem, at the precise moment that Jesus was being crucified, and the subsequent “blood moon” that occurred that evening, were “signs” that Joel’s prophecy of the last days was fulfilled.
Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington were able to reconstruct the events that took place during the darkness which occurred while Jesus was being crucified. By their calculations, a “Blood Moon” occurred from about 6:20 p.m. to 6:50 p.m., at the start of the Jewish Passover. This would confirm both parts of Joel’s prophecy, that Peter declared, as being fulfilled the day Jesus was crucified. Darkness at noon and the moon turned to blood in the evening, during a lunar eclipse.
“The sun shall be turned into darkness And the moon into blood…”
As the darkness passes and the sins of all people for all time are fully paid for by Jesus’ death, the promise of His resurrection will arrive in three days.
On the morning of the third day, when the disciples and Mary arrive at the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, they find that the burial cloth that was wrapped around Jesus is empty, and the Lord’s body is no longer there.
As the day dawns and the resurrection is confirmed, the incredible news of man’s first day of freedom and forgiveness of all sins—becomes reality. Light saturates the earth with God’s glory, as Jesus has triumphed over all darkness. In the death and resurrection of the Messiah, as God had promised, all people who have been born on the earth have the opportunity to have all their sins removed and obtain eternal life.
It is reasonable to conclude that God has the technology to use the Stars, Planets, and Moon, to display a message to us. The scriptures describe God as creating these bodies for this purpose. The Lord is always wanting to speak to us; the problem is that we are not always listening, or do not want to hear what He has to say.
At the birth of Jesus, there were supernatural phenomenon that occurred during the time of His birth. This event was so significant that several very intelligent men, astronomers, made the long and difficult journey to Israel to investigate this occurrence.
At the crucifixion of Jesus, the Sun was obscured for three hours and there is no scientific explanation for this phenomenon. This is particularly important when we consider that this event could not have been a Solar Eclipse, as the historical records of that time, described the occurrence of a Total Lunar Eclipse on the evening of Jesus’ Crucifixion. It is not possible to have a Total Solar Eclipse when the Moon is in its full stage. What was this phenomenon? We don’t know.
We do know that God has sent the world, “signs in the heavens,” when Jesus arrived the first time. It is certain that there will be signs in the heavens when Jesus returns again. The Blood Moon of September, 2015, could be the sign that Jesus return is imminent. We will have to wait and see. Until that time, I plan to watch for Jesus—everyday. I plan to be ready, just in case He does come. If the return of Jesus does not happen in September, then it will happen some time in the very near future. We know this is true, because Jesus promised to return for us. I hope that you are in a saving relationship with the Lord and are ready, when He does come for us.
The preceding text is from the new book: “Dead or Alive,” by Robert Clifton Robinson
[1a] Tertullian. “Apologeticum” Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, known as Tertullian, was an early Christian author. 160-220 AD, Carthage, Tunisia.
[1b] 1.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 18 January 2011
2. Mair, Victor H. (1990), “Old Sinitic *Myag, Old Persian Maguš and English Magician”, Early China 15: 27–47.
[1c] Roberts, Donaldson & Coxe (1896), Volume IV, “Contra Celsum”, Book II, chapter 23 p. 441.
[1d] Donaldson, Coxe (1888). The ante-Nicene fathers. 6. New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co.. p. 136.
 Excerpta Latina Barbari, page 51B: “At that time in the reign of Augustus, on 1st January the Magi brought him gifts and worshipped him. The names of the Magi were Bithisarea, Melichior and Gathaspa
 The Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Jack Finegan (Revised Edition; Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998) ISBN 1–56563-143–9.
 The Bethlehem Star, written by Frederick A. Larson. http://www.bethlehemstar.net
 Graphic Illustration by Rob Robinson
 The Star That Astonished the World, Ernest L. Martin (Second Edition; Portland, Oregon: ASK Publications, 1996) ISBN 0–94-5657–87-0.
 Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius c. 395-423, Saturnalia, book II, chapter IV:11: “Cum audisset inter pueros quos in Syria Herodes rex Iudaeorum intra bimatum iussit interfici filium quoque eius occisum, ait: Melius est Herodis porcum esse quam filium,”
 Tertullian, Apologeticus, Chapter 21, 19 cited in Bouw, G. D. (1998, Spring). The darkness during the crucifixion. The Biblical Astronomer, 8(84). Retrieved November 30, 2006 from . Tertullian, Apologeticus, Chapter 21, 19
 Rufinus, Ecclesiastical History, Book 9, Chapter 6 Ussher, J., & Pierce, L. (Trans.)(2007). Annals of the World [p. 822]. Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Publishing Group. ISBN 0-89051-510-7
 Orosius, P. (A.D. 417). The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. In, R. J. Deferrari (Trans.) & H. Dressler, et al. (Vol. Eds.) (1964). The Fathers of the Church – Vol. 50 (1st short-run printing 2001, pp. 291-292). Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 978-0-8132-1310-1.
 1.Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington, The Date of the Crucifixion Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 37 (March 1985) 2.Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, p. 193 (However note that Humphreys places the Last Supper on a Wednesday)