The Origin of the Universe and Life on Other Planets

COPYRIGHT WARNING

Scientists understand today that the original assumption that there must be many millions of other planets in the universe, like earth, perfectly suited for life, is now highly implausible. When all the requirements necessary for life are considered, there is very little chance that we will ever find intelligent life on any other planet. Why did the Lord make such a vast and expansive universe, if only to inhabit one tiny planet with Life? The obvious answer is that He was not concerned with making good use of the vastness of the Cosmos, He wanted to display His creative power, much in the same way that a great artist might fill up a canvas with a demonstration of his creative ability.

Psalm 19:1 The a heavens proclaim the glory of God. The skies display his craftsmanship. 2 Day after day they continue to speak; night after night they make him known. 3 They speak without a sound or word; their voice is never heard. 4 Yet their message has gone throughout the earth, and their words to all the world. (NLT)

From the beginning of time, men and women have seen all that has been created and the delicate balance which exists to make life possible here on the earth. We observe an incredible and organized creation of stunning beauty, with mankind as the pinnacle of all creation—possessing a brain of incalculable capacity. A mind that houses a consciousness that remains a mystery to the present day. Jesus defined the mind as a separate and distinct entity from the soul of man.

Mark 12:30 And you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ This is the first commandment.

We often think of ourselves as a body, soul and spirit, but Jesus defines us in terms of a fourth component—the mind.

The human mind is the place of cognitive faculties that provides a means of consciousness, and permits our perception of the world, our thinking, our judgement, and the residency of our memory. These are characteristics which are unique to the human species.[1] We are self aware and have knowledge of what is good and what is evil. We are able to choose between the two and bear an inner consciousness that either affirms or convicts our choices. The conscience is an important indicator of our origin—demanding the conclusion that we were created with this ability—not that we learned to distinguish between the consequences of our moral decisions by an evolutionary process.

Our mind is similar to the mind of our Creator. It has the ability to create, order, design, engineer, control, and destroy. In this manner—we were made in His image, with a mind, consciousness and spirit—which are eternal.

An impossible universe

Those who conclude that the universe simply came into existence on its own have failed to consider the implications of that conclusion. The number of conditions that must be present in order for advanced life forms to exist—are impossible apart from a transcendent intervention.

According to Peter D. Ward, Paleontologist and Donald Brownlee, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, advanced life forms on any other planet in the universe must be extremely rare—if not impossible.

“…not only intelligent life, but even the simplest of animal life, is exceedingly rare in our galaxy and in the Universe. We are not saying that life is rare—only that animal life is. We believe that life in the form of microbes or their equivalents is very common in the universe, perhaps more common than even Drake and Sagan envisioned. However, complex life—animals and higher plants—is likely to be far more rare than is commonly assumed.”[2]

In fact, advanced life forms on earth could not have occurred by the very long process of evolution.

Our solar system formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago.[3] The earth took its present size about 4.2 billion years ago from the debris left over from our sun.[4] After frequent impacts by asteroids over a period of millions of years, the surface of earth finally cooled sufficiently to permit liquid water to be sustained. For millions of additional years, earth was struck repeatedly by asteroids which would have annihilated any life form. As Jupiter began to draw away the majority of objects that would destroy all life, earth developed its first basic life forms beginning about 3.85 billion years ago.[5] According to Microbiologists, the evolutionary leap from non-living matter to bacteria requires about 3.85 billion years. From bacteria to human beings, it would take an additional 3.85 billion years. Unfortunately for evolutionists, the entire evolutionary process from non-living matter to humans—requires at least 7.7 billion years. Earth has only existed for half that time, sufficient enough to only permit bacteria to evolve.

Because of the impossibility that human life could have evolved on earth by organisms present on earth, scientists have resorted to a desperate measure: The bacteria necessary to evolve from non-living matter into bacteria, must have come from the planet Mars. Unfortunately, no such bacteria has ever been discovered on Mars either.

According to Paleontologist, Dr. Peter Ward, when we examine the Fossil record of earth—we observe the emergence of man—suddenly, not over the long course of an evolutionary processes. Man appeared on the earth precisely when the environment was perfect for him to survive on this planet. This is indicative of a moment of creation—rather than a long process of evolution which clearly was not possible for an advanced life form such as man.

“New ways of more accurately dating evolutionary advances recognized in the Earth’s fossil record, coupled with new discoveries of previously unknown fossil types, have demonstrated that the emergence of animal life on this planet took place later in time, and more suddenly, than we had suspected….Although life may have formed nearly as soon as it could have, the formation of animal life was much more recent and protracted. These findings suggest that complex life is far more difficult to arrive at than evolving life itself…”[6]

The following are only a few examples of the categorical requirements necessary for human life to exist on our planet:

Earth is the right distance from our star, which provides an environment necessary for complex life and the presence of liquid water. Any closer and Earth’s oceans would boil away, any farther and our planet would be locked in a perpetual winter.

The Earth has the correct planetary mass, which retains atmospheric gases necessary for human life, with oceans that provide a hydrologic cycle that waters the planet and sustains all life. Our planet is the perfect size to sustain heat for tectonic plate movement, with a solid and molten core that produce an electromagnetic force field over the Earth—shielding the inhabitants of the planet from dangerous gamma rays produced from our star.

The correct balance of plate tectonics, also provides the proper ratio of land to water, enhancing biotic diversity.

Our Sun, is the correct age in its lifespan to provide Earth with the precise amount of ultraviolet Sunlight. If Earth was either younger or older, no life would be possible.

The large planet Jupiter is an Asteroid killer. Without the massive gravitational force of Jupiter in our Solar System, earth would be continually bombarded by planet killing rocks from space.

The ratio of ocean to land on Earth is precisely what is necessary to sustain life. If the seas of the Earth were just slightly larger or smaller—no advanced forms of life could exist.

Earth enjoys a perfect and stable planetary orbit around the Sun. This is due to the placement of Earth and its Moon—in relationship to the Sun. If the size of our Moon was changed even slightly, or the distance of our planet from the Sun was increased or decreased, no advanced life would be present on our planet.

Earth has a rare and unusually large Moon which provides the perfect axis tilt for our planet to sustain the four seasons we observe. If the Moon was slightly larger or smaller, this axis tilt would vary considerably and make the season of our planet unfit for human life.

Finally, we just happen to inhabit the precise kind of Galaxy that allows the Earth to contain heavy elements which provide a perfect orbit around the Sun. If our planet was not in its precise location of the Milky Way Galaxy, no advance life could survive on this planet.

There are 40 empirical facts of science which are necessary in order for advanced life forms to exist on earth. See the article: “40 Empirical Facts the Prove the Existence of God,” for more information.

The fact that these many requirements for life are present to allow Earth to provide a home for human life—is truly extraordinary. The likelihood that any other planet in the entire universe would have the necessary parameters for advance life forms—is highly unlikely. Although life may be present on billions of other planets, even under harsh and difficult environments—intelligent life forms can only exist when very strict and constant factors are present.

These are empirical and scientific facts of the universe which point to an intelligence as the source of all life on our planet. Without intelligence and powerful engineering—there would be no planet for human life to exist. The Bible describes this great being as God—the source and reason behind the universe and human life. God created us for Himself and it is our purpose to glorify Him with our life and enjoy Him forever. Until we discover this truth personally, we will always be unfulfilled and fail to attain the purpose for which we were created.

Science has arrived at a place today where there is deep understanding that human beings are not the product of chance. Too many important details are required to make life possible—without which—Earth would not have the capacity to sustain human life. It is a fact of human existence that our advanced form of life—also defines us as extremely sensitive to the conditions which surround us. We require tremendous balance in all our environment in order to live. Change any part of our habitat—even slightly—and we die.

The chance that this precise environment—necessary for human life—could have evolved, is impossible. There was an outside intelligence which acted upon the engineering of the universe to ensure that every minute detail required for delicate human life, was present—before we appeared on the earth. The fingerprints of this Creative genius are observed in every corner of the Cosmos.

An inner witness

All human beings have an intense curiosity in understanding the true meaning of life and the purpose for which we exist. We are inherently aware of the wonder of our being with an inner knowledge that our true purpose here is greater than the knowledge we currently possess. The reality of death and the end of our existence are foreign concepts which our mind and soul cannot accept. The heart of man understands that he must live on past the death of his body, although the mind does not understand how this is possible. In these mysteries–science is of no help. Scientists can tell us how the universe has developed but it cannot tell us why it exists in the first place. Despite the theories of evolution and its explanation for how species change over long periods of time, no scientists has been able to tell us how life originally began. Many theories are postulated but not a single definitive answer has been given for how a planet with such a hostile environment—could have become perfect for for human existence.

What we find is that life is infinitely more complex and unlikely than any naturalistic hypothesis can demonstrate. The mind and consciousness of man is a deep mystery that cannot be answered by evolution or adaptation of species. A human brain has some 200 billion neurons and 125 trillion synapses in its cerebral cortex alone.[7] We are a highly complex species—made from common elements that originated in stars. How this material obtained consciousness and self awareness, is a mystery that science cannot answer.

The Bible provides us with the only rational and reasonable explanation for human existence and purpose. We were created—perfect by God. A moral defect called “sin”—ruined our perfect existence and turned mankind inward towards self consumption and destruction.

It is irrational and unreasonable to conclude that the universe and the planet which we live on could have happened by mere happenstance, or as a product of random mutations over billions of years. The real question is: “Why does the universe exist at all? Since we know today that the Cosmos had a beginning, we can no longer dismiss its existence as coming from nothing, with no purpose. In the words of philosopher, Bertrand Russell, “the universe is just there and that’s all.” [8]This is an incorrect statement. The universe in not just “there”; it came into being. The universe is dependent on a beginning which cannot be explained by a purely natural processes. When the universe suddenly exploded into a mass of gases which formed the stars, planets and galaxies, where did this matter come from? Scientists have stated that just prior to the expansion of matter at the beginning of the big bang, all the present matter of the universe was compressed into a tiny particle of incredible density.[9] If this is true, then where did this tiny particle come from? Since all things, other than those which are eternal, must have a first cause—what was the cause of this tiny particle in the beginning?

We cannot explain the existence of anything by simply stating that “it just is,” and leave it at that. The human mind is not satisfied with an answer which is no answer at all. This particle of infinite density did not exist prior to its explosion, neither did space itself. Both came into existence and exploded at a fixed moment—and began time itself. During the first Picoseconds of the universe—the expansion was controlled to exact a specific outcome that would allow for advanced life much later. The cause of this event was an entity that was external to the event itself—and this entity acted upon that event to cause its outcome.

Any entity which exists that is eternal, demands that it is uncaused, incorruptible and indestructible; otherwise, it would not be capable of existence.[10] Following this line of reasoning, since the universe had a beginning, it is without the essential component of eternity. For this reason, the universe must come from a transcendent source. This is to say, that someone with unlimited wisdom and power caused the universe to exist. To deny this is to fall upon the absurdity that the universe came into existence from nothing, by no cause, with no purpose, which is impossible.

These are empirical facts of the universe which point to a Creator as its source. We can prove the existence of God from science by the evidence of the universe itself. The fact that it began suddenly from nothing preexisting and was controlled to exact an outcome—demands an intelligent source.

God did not need to create life on any other planet. We are the object of His love and it was only the our species that the Son of God was willing to die.

What scientists see as a colossal waste of space, a universe possessing only one inhabitable planet, is in fact precisely why God created such a vast Cosmos.

The Book of Job and scientific knowledge

If you examine your Bible today, you will notice that the Book of Job is located just before the Psalms. There is good reason for this placement. Those who authorized the Book of Job as worthy of inclusion in the Bible believed that it predates the Psalms. Job 7:17-18 is, in fact, a direct quote from Psalms 8:4. This means that the writer of Job had access to the Psalms when it was written, making Job older than the Psalms, or about 1000 B.C. Of greater surprise is the actuality that the Book of Job contains specific facts about the heavens, the earth, and life on earth, which was otherwise unknown by any other source at the time these things were written. It appears by the design of this 38th chapter, that God was cross-examining Job regarding his knowledge of how the universe and the earth operate. This appears to be for the purpose of informing Job that he really knows very little regarding the God who is credited with the creation of the universe. A second purpose for the many rhetorical questions asked by God—appears to be for the express purpose of giving us insight into the immense power and wisdom of God in His creation of all things.

Job Chapter 38 contains 35 facts that were not known by any man 3,000 years ago.

• The foundations of the earth (Job 38:4)
• Laying the measures thereof (Job 38:5)
• Stretching the line upon the earth (Job 38:5)
• Fastening of earth’s foundations (Job 38:6)
• Rejoicing when the cornerstone of the earth was laid (Job 38:6-7)
• Shutting up of the sea (Job 38:8)
• Limiting or setting bounds for the sea (Job 38:9-11)
• Laws of day and night (Job 38:12-13)
• The springs of the sea (Job 38:16)
• The depths of the sea, the gates of death (Job 38:17)
• The doors of the shadow of death (Job 38:17)
• The breadth of the earth (Job 38:18)
• The dwelling of light (Job 38:19)
• The dwelling of darkness (Job 38:19-20)
• Number of Job’s days (Job 38:21)
• The treasures of the snow (Job 38:22)
• The treasures of the hail (Job 38:22-23)
• The light and winds (Job 38:24)
• The watercourse, lightning, thunder, and rains (Job 38:25-27)
• The origin of rain (Job 38:28)
• The origin of dew drops (Job 38:28)
• The origin of ice (Job 38:29)
• The origin of frost (Job 38: 29-30)
• Binding and loosing of Pleiades and the bands of Orion (Job 38: 31)
• Mazzaroth in his seasons (Job 38:32)
• Arcturus and his sons (Job 38:32)
• The ordinances of heaven (Job 38:33)
• The dominion of heaven in earth (Job 38:33)
• Control of the clouds (Job 38:34)
• Sending lightnings (Job 38:35)
• Wisdom in the inward parts (Job 38:36)
• Understanding in the heart (Job 38:36)
• The number of clouds (Job 38:37)
• The bottles of heaven (Job 38:37)
• The dust and clods of earth (Job 38:38)

Job’s suffering

This story of a man called Job begins with a great mystery. He is described as a righteous man to whom there is no equal on the earth. The suffering that Job experiences is not due to any wrongful action or defect in his character; it is because he is a good man, that he will be made to suffer. Unknown to Job at the time, satan has made an accusation against him that he only serves God for the benefits that he receives from Him. Upon this slander, God grants a limited access by satan—to Job’s life so that the devil may inflict suffering upon Job to prove his character. This trial is not for God’s benefit but for Job. God knows all things, but Job has yet to learn the important lessons of suffering and its great benefits in refining and purifying the human heart.

Surprisingly, we find that the Lord gives no warning before, nor explanation after, for why Job suffered. Job himself does not ever discover where the true source of his deep pain—originated from. We should understand that if Job had been told by God the reason that he was made to suffer, then the entire purpose of the book of Job would have been lost to all of us who would read it later. By the example of Job, we should understand that when we suffer, we do not need to understand why—only that our suffering has a good purpose and God has permitted our pain for a greater purpose that we may not ever understand during our earthly life.

We are introduced to certain ironies, by Job’s terrible suffering, which are instructive in teaching us that the suffering of Job was not for the purpose of destroying him but to teach him. God’s purpose was to take a good man and make him a great man of God. We learn that those who chose to lead Godly lives will suffer greater trials than those who live their lives carelessly for the Lord.

2 Timothy 3:12 12 All those who will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.

Throughout the suffering of Job and even after the trial is over, the Lord does not rebuke Job or condemn him. Instead, the Lord seeks to encourage Job for the future. As we arrive at chapter 38, Job’s trial has come to an end, and we see God questioning him about how much knowledge he really has regarding the world around him and how God performs all His will.

Lessons about the universe from Job

We learn by the Lord’s questions and answers of Job, that we really do not know nearly as much about the universe as we think we know. Scientists today could take a great lesson in humility from this 38th chapter of Job. None of us were present at the beginning of the universe. All the conjecture about the first seconds of creation—how the gases and masses formed stars and planets and expanded into the present Cosmos we observe—are only educated guesses. I am humored by the certainty of theoretical physicists who speak as though they were there at the moment the universe began and could see some of the things that they describe with such clarity. If the universe is actually 14 billion years old—this is a very long time to look back across time and declare, with precision, exactly what happened at the beginning or what existed just prior to the inception of the universe.

A fatal error has occurred by very intelligent men and women who have not given proper consideration to the scientific data that is espoused in this 38th chapter of Job. Since the knowledge that is revealed in this chapter is stunning, considering how early in the history of man it was written—it should be examined, at the very least, for the information that is revealed, which was unknown during this period of ancient man’s existence. God is telling us that He is the author of the Bible and the one to whom we should look to as the source of the universe and all that exists.

There is certainly no person who knows exactly how the universe began or how it became what it is today—with absolute certitude. So also—is it impossible to understand an eternal and unlimited being entirely, unless He chooses to reveal Himself to us.

As Job could not perceive the purpose for his suffering which was thrust upon him, nor exactly how God has caused the universe to exist and remain so that it can sustain life, neither can any of us know with certainty the mysteries of the universe.

We are prohibited by our transience from fully comprehending God’s existence and the universe that He has created in all its splendor and glory.

Job was faced with a decision whether he would trust God and His goodness or cave-in to fear, doubts, and unbelief. We are faced with a similar paradox. God said that He is the source of the universe and all life. If we do not believe what He has said—we make ourselves fools in all further observance of the universe, as well as gaining any true understanding for the true meaning and purpose for life.

In the end, Job makes the right decision. He determines that he will trust the Lord and not lay blame to Him for all of his suffering. Job was able to arrive at this decision without knowing why God had permitted his terrible trials nor gaining any clear understanding for the larger plan of God and His creation.

God cannot be known by human wisdom

Our purpose in reading this chapter—must be to bring us into an awareness that we will never be able to fully understand who God is and why the world exists as it does—on this side of eternity. When our life is over and we cross over to the eternal state of our existence, at that moment—we will fully understand all of these important questions:

• Suffering
• The experiences of God’s people throughout the Bible
• The promises of God
• The governments of man that God has created
• The prophecies of the Bible
• Our own personal experiences
• Human knowledge in contrast to God’s wisdom
• The existence of evil
• Why Jesus died for us
• What our purpose in this universe is

By design, God has only chosen to reveal Himself by His creation, His word, and by His Son. It is through the inner revelation of His existence that He has hardwired into the heart of every human being—if we will respond to this knowledge—that we can go on and partake of His divine nature and know Him.

Unless we begin with the essential truth that God is truly good and that everything that He does is always for the purpose of good, we will be unable to go any further in understanding how and why He does the things that He does.

The only truth that is certain is that God is always good and always has our best interests at heart. All of His plans are to bless our lives, even when the reality of those blessings are not presently observed.

God does not try to prove His existence

It should come as a great surprise to all of us that nowhere in the Bible does God seek to prove to us that He exists. It is assumed by all the massive evidence of what He has made—that God exists. The fact that you are here today, reading the words that are in this book, is evidence that God exists. For if He did not, it is certain that none of us would either. We live and go on living only because He determined that it would be so. Because all things owe their existence to God—He does not feel that it is necessary to explain to us, why He does everything that He does. He expects us to acknowledge by rational logic that God exists and has made everything. To deny this absolute certainty is to make ourselves fools.

The questions God asks of Job

In concluding this chapter, I will include the questions which God requests that Job answer—many of which God does not answer due to the self evident solutions which are found only in Him. We should understand, by the way in which these questions are framed, that God has knowledge of the Cosmos—far greater than we posses. To this end, we should rightfully trust Him for the solutions to all of life’s abiding issues.

While I was finishing the writing of this book, I had several young men and women—who informed me that they do not believe in God or the Bible—present several important questions to me. They asked a response regarding certain matters which are really very easy to answer. I chose not to answer—because to have done so would have served no good purpose. These young people had already determined, in their own minds, what the answers were before they asked. They were not sincerely seeking solutions to further their understanding of God, but wanted only fodder to feed their foolish assumptions. I refused to enable their continuing derision by giving them an answer.

Here, God makes use of a similar method of teaching that Jesus often utilized. Asking questions of those who ask questions, so that the one making the request has an opportunity to consider what they are asking in the first place. As Job seeks to know why, God asks him if he understands the answers to even greater questions. Does he understand how the universe exists, and how it is managed? Of course, he does not. Why then would Job expect that there is always an answer to every question of life? There are many issues that we have about the universe and this planet to which we live, that will never be settled on this side of eternity. This is why we must have a basis of trust—if we are going to survive in this world. God hopes that our basis of trust is Him. To those who turn to the Lord for all their answers, He becomes a well spring of wisdom and life.

The 34 questions that God asks Job:

1. The Creation of the Earth

Job 38:4 Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding.

This is a question that should be asked of all the scientific community today. Where were you when the universe began? It is impossible to fully know what the first moments of the universe were truly like, and how it began. This reality should cause a certain amount of humility amongst those who claim to know exactly how the Cosmos began. Job was wondering why God had allowed him to suffer so greatly. God responds by asking him if he knows how He made the earth? “Job, please explain it to me, if you know.”

2. The Measurements or finely tuned details of the Earth

Job 38:5 Who determined its measurements? Surely you know!

The fact that a universe exists at all is a valid question for scientists. Today, Cosmologists understand that given the parameters that were present during the first moments of the big bang, the type of universe that should exist would be vastly different from the one that we observe and live in.

In fact, the most likely scenario for the way the universe should have begun would not have allowed the correct conditions necessary to make life possible. In the first picoseconds of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy were accurately within the extremely narrow limits necessary for life to exist on earth, 13 billion years later.

There were also many other precise elements and circumstances that were required during the entire 14 billion-year history of the universe that were essential to make life possible, much later. If, for example, the ratio of electromagnetism to gravity was either increased or decreased by 1040, we would have the wrong type of stars in the universe that would make life on any planet impossible.[11]

There are several of these narrow requirements that were necessary at the beginning of the universe, during its expansion, and later on—when our solar system formed, to make possible an environment sufficient to sustain life on earth.

If, for example, the initial expansion of the universe was slightly smaller—it would have immediately collapsed back upon itself, and no universe would have begun. Had the expansion been just minutely larger, then the dispersal of gases would have been too fast to congeal into galaxies.

The chance that the universe would form in the precise manner that it has—is in the words of many experts, “impossible.”[12]

God asks Job: Who determined its measurements?

The precision that is built into the Cosmos is defined as “fine tuning.” The certainty of this finely tuned environment that is fit for human life is one of the most compelling empirical evidences for the existence of an intelligence as the source of the universe—which exists today.

God determined certain measurements for the earth in order to allow it to exist and function, so that life could be sustained upon it. Why is there a universe or an earth at all, given the fact that the most likely environment that should have come from the expansion of elements that were present when the “grand unification epoch” took place—would have made life impossible much later?

Today, physicists have the proficiency by mathematics to calculate backwards the probable circumstances of the universe at its initial expansion. According to these computations, the conditions that were required at −360 seconds (a trillion-trillionth of a second) were so precise—that had they varied by 1 in 10 to 10123, the probable universe that would have resulted would not have produced the conditions necessary to make life possible today, some 13.7 billion years later.[13]

The fact that conditions have presented themselves perfect over the course of nearly 14 billion years, is not an accident. Scientists and Cosmologists today generally agree that the universe is “designed for life.” Here we are today, against all odds, living our lives on an extraordinary planet in a remote area of this vast universe. The environment which makes life possible on earth, did not suddenly occur; they were in existence from the first moments of the big bang. If the entire universe had not formed precisely as it has—for nearly 14 billion years—stars, galaxies, our solar system, and planet earth—would not have emerged to allow for intelligent life.

For an astounding study on the 36 precise conditions that were necessary to make life possible on earth, see the chapter in this book: The Moment of Creation.

3. Stretching the Line upon the Earth

Job 38:5 …Or who stretched the line upon it?

Here, God speaks of the earth being created according to a predetermined plan. Much as a master carpenter stretches a line out to find a level for what he is building, the Lord determined the dimensions of the universe and the earth, beforehand. If you have read the chapter in this book, “The Moment of Creation,” then you are aware of all the precise details that went into designing a universe fit for life. Scientists today are backtracking on their original assessment that there must be many millions of planets, like earth, that could sustain intelligent life. What scientists have come to understand in studying the requirements for life is that intelligent beings, such as humans, must be extremely rare. Many people incorrectly assume that the earth and its rare conditions which make life possible. In fact, the ability for life to exist at all became necessary during the first moments of the universe, nearly 14 billion years ago. If circumstances had varied by as little as 10123, no life would have ever been possible on earth much later.[14] These absolute requirements were necessary over the entire course of the past 13.7 billion years of the universe’s existence, not only since the earth formed some 4.56 billion years ago.

Unless the precise conditions were also present in other stars, galaxies, solar systems, and planets—over the same 14 billion year term—intelligent life would not be possible in any other location of the universe.

4. Fastening of Earth’s foundations

Job 38: 6 To what were its foundations fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone?

Unknown to any man at the time that God spoke these words to Job was the existence of gravity. Our planet does not rest upon anything visible. To an observer from space, the earth appears to hang upon nothing. Isaac Newton is credited with discovering that the planets are held in their orbits by a force that is determined by their relationship to the sun and other planets. This force called gravity, is finely balanced; and in the words of Isaac Newton, it could not have occurred by happenstance.

“I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly.”[15]

We must remember that Isaac Newton did not develop the concept of gravity and the earth resting on nothing until 1687. Here in Job 26:7, God describes the phenomenon of gravity 2,600 years before Newton discovered its existence.[16]

Job 26:7 He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing.

5. Angels rejoicing when the cornerstone of the earth was laid

Job 38:6-7 …Or who laid its cornerstone, 7 When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?

The Bible defines the “morning stars” and “sons of God” as the angelic creation.[17] They were in existence before the creation of the universe. They watched in amazement with great joy, as the Lord spoke the creation into existence.[18] Their presence before the creation of man and the fact that Lucifer is described as ruling over kingdoms on the earth long before Adam was created is great evidence that a cataclysmic event took place after God originally created the heavens and the earth, as described by Genesis 1:1.

The prophet Ezekiel speaks of Lucifer being cast to the earth and laid before kings at the time that he fell. He was “turned to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all those who saw him (at that time).

Ezekiel 28:17 Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty; You corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor; I cast you to the ground, I laid you before kings, That they might gaze at you. 18 You defiled your sanctuaries By the multitude of your iniquities, By the iniquity of your trading; Therefore I brought fire from your midst; It devoured you, And I turned you to ashes upon the earth In the sight of all who saw you.

It is clear by Genesis 1:2 that the catastrophic event that caused the earth to be “formless and void” was the fall of Lucifer with a third of the angels. There is no other viable explanation for when this event took place. It is preposterous to say that Lucifer’s fall occurred during the six days of earth’s re-creation, if we take these to be six literal 24-hour days. Job 38:6-7 clearly states that Lucifer and the angels were already in existence when God created the heavens and the earth. They could not be created during the six days and also present before creation.

I have stated my position extensively—that upon examining all of the evidence from the Bible and the vast and conclusive record of geology—it is implausible that the earth is only 6-10,000 years old, as young earth creationists claim. One of the points that is used to substantiate this claim is that God simply made the earth appear to be billions of years old. This premise is in direct conflict with Romans 1:20, which states that God is known by what He has made.

See the chapter: The Beginning of the Universe: Reconciling 6 Days with 13.7 Billion Years

Romans 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead

If God made the earth look billions of years old when it is really only 10,000 years old, what does that say about the nature of God? Of course, it wrongly implies that God is a deceiver, which is not true. Since God can be known by the things that He has made, which includes the earth, and earth appears to be 4.56 billion years old—this is because it is this old.[19] I would personally reject the entire theory of a young earth based solely on this verse of scripture which would make God a deceiver—not including all of the other overwhelming evidence from geology, paleontology, as well as the Hebrew scriptures.

There are millions of fossil remains depicting nonhuman beings who lived on the earth millions of years ago. Who are they? Why are they vastly different genetically from human beings of today? These beings were not human nor ape; they were a separate and distinct genus. Scientists have dated the fossils of these beings at millions of years old. Clearly, human beings, in their present state, have only been on the earth for about 6,000 years. There is an extensive list of skeletal remains that have been dated as far back as 5 million years, yet not one of these ancient remains is described as being “Homo Sapiens” who have lived upon the earth for the past 6,000 years.

“Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.”[20]

Finally, it is important to understand that a planet that was only 10,000 years old would be rotating at a much greater rate than our current 1,000 miles per hour. One of the ways in which we know that the earth is about 4.56 billion years old is by the speed of our rotation. Younger planets rotate much faster than older planets. A rotation speed of 1,000 miles per hour significantly defines earth as being a much older planet.

In the earlier age of all planets, they rotate much faster, making the existence of life impossible. When we add up the changes per year, in just milliseconds, which the earth has slowed over nearly 5 billion years, we arrive at a rotation of earth which corresponds with the time that intelligent life was found on the earth. Scientists estimate that the earth is slowing in its rotation at the rate of just 1.4 milliseconds per day, every hundred years. Since these records have been kept in 1820, this slowing of 1.4 milliseconds per day has been verified. Taking our current rate of decline in rotational speed and calculating backwards, 4.56 billion years, the earth would have made a complete day and night in just 6.5 hours.[21] If the earth was just 10,000 years old, with less than seven hours of sunlight—the amount of light in proportion to darkness would not allow for the existence of plants, animals, or human life.

This fifth point of Job Chapter 38 is a substantial and conclusive piece of evidence that God has given us for how old the earth is, and how Lucifer and the angels fit into the entire description of all that God created. Without this single verse, we would not know that the angels were created before the universe began.

6. Shutting up of the sea

Job 38:8 Or who shut in the sea with doors, When it burst forth and issued from the womb?

An ocean that covers 71% of the planet is unique to the earth.[22] Thus far, no other planet has been discovered that possesses the massive ocean which comprises the earth. It is because of our massive seas that life is possible on our planet. Were it not for the hydrologic cycle of wind, moving clouds over the oceans, dropping water in the form of rain, and repeating this process over and over, all over the earth—life, as we know it, would not be possible. There are 310 million cubic miles of ocean covering the earth, with an average depth of just over 12,000 feet.[23] If all the salt content of the oceans of earth was removed from the sea, it would cover the land to a depth of 500 feet—some 50 quadrillion tons.[24] So far, about 230,000 species have been discovered in the seas that cover the earth. There is an estimated two million marine species that are believed to exist but are, at the present, undiscovered.[25] Even today, the actual origin of the oceans that cover our beloved planet is unknown.[26]

Here, the Lord informs Job that He is the source of the massive oceans of earth. He designed and engineered their size and salt content to be perfectly balanced so as to allow each one of us to live our lives. The fact that earth has such a vast ocean— is by design, according to the Book of Job. God precisely calibrated its size and salt content by His unlimited intelligence and precise engineering skills.

The ratio of oceans-to-continents:
If we had larger oceans, diversity and complexity of life forms would be limited. If we had less ocean, there would be no complex life forms. If we had less land, it would be insufficient for advanced life forms to exist. If earth had a greater proportion of land, the resulting changes would be too radical for advanced life to survive.

Amount of sea salt:
If the seas had more salt, it would cause too rapid of cloud formation over the oceans and would radically disrupt the climate and atmospheric temperature balances. If the seas had less salt, there would be insufficient cloud formation, resulting in inadequate water cycle, which would disrupt atmospheric temperature balances and hence the climate.

The Lord engineered the balance of all the components of our vast oceans as a sign to us of His never-ending love and care.

7. Limiting or setting a boundary for the sea

Job 38:9-11 When I made the clouds its garment, And thick darkness its swaddling band; 10 When I fixed My limit for it, And set bars and doors; 11 When I said, “This far you may come, but no farther, And here your proud waves must stop!

The boundaries of the oceans which cover the earth are determined primarily by gravitational forces which act upon our planet. The moon serves as the greatest influence for keeping our massive oceans under control. When the Lord created the earth, He made it with a moon that is much larger in proportion to our planet than the moons of most other planets. Our moon is the precise size to allow a perfect balance in the tides, maintaining the limits of the massive oceans of earth.

Earth’s gravitational interaction with the  moon:

If the moon was only slightly larger and had greater gravitational pull on the earth, the changes to our tides, the atmosphere, and our rotational period, would destroy all life by massive waves from the seas. If the moon was slightly smaller and had less gravitational pull on the earth, all weather on earth would change so severely that life could not exist. The Lord asks Job if he knows how these limits were set so that the sea could produce the hydrologic effect of weather, yet not overrun the coastlines and flood the cities. This is a fine balance that the Lord has built into the earth, to make life wonderful for all of us who live here.

Amongst dozens of finely tuned mechanisms that provide the perfect environment on earth for intelligent life, the oceans play a crucial role. Dating back to the original formation of the earth and its moon, had there been even the slightest of changes in the size of earth or the moon—the distance that they are from each other, changes in rotation, or the tilt of the axis—any one of these would have profoundly affected critical components of the earth, making life impossible on our planet.

God is speaking to Job about how He precisely tuned the earth for life, and that He is the source of all life, and the power which sustains it.

8. Laws of day and night

Job 38:12-13 Have you commanded the morning since your days began, And caused the dawn to know its place, 13 That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, And the wicked be shaken out of it?

The rotation of the earth at 1,000 miles per hour, with earth being 25,000 miles in circumference, determines our 24-hour days. Had earth days been modified by changing the duration of light and darkness, life would have been profoundly different.

If the Earth rotated at more than 1,000 miles per hour, the temperature differences between day and night would be too extreme for life. If the earth rotated at less than 1,000 miles per hour, atmospheric winds would blow at such a great speed, that life could not exist. I discussed this issue of the amount of light and darkness in point 5 previously. In order for plants and animals to be able to live on the earth, we would have to be near a 24-hour day, balancing light and darkness. Here, God tells Job that He has commanded the light to be at its current duration, so that we could live here on the planet that He fashioned for us.

9. The springs of the sea, the depths of the sea

Job 38:16 Have you entered the springs of the sea? Or have you walked in search of the depths?

In addition to rivers which flow into the oceans, there is a constant supply of fresh water from springs and fountains that come up from the ocean depths. Prior to 1960, no one knew that the ocean floor contained a vast number of freshwater springs. In 1930, William Beebe conducted dives in his bathysphere near the islands of Bermuda. This opened the door for further exploration of the ocean floor, which led to the discovery of the deep ocean springs that exist on the ocean floor of earth.[27] Today, we understand that what God told Job 2,700 years ago about the existence of the springs of the sea is a fact. This 9th point demonstrates that the Bible possessed ancient knowledge of the earth, that no man was aware of until nearly three millennia later. It is clear that God was demonstrating His great power and knowledge to all of us by providing detailed information about the earth, that only the Creator who made our planet could have known.

10. The gates of death

Job 38:17 Have the gates of death been revealed to you?

One of the greatest mysteries of life, is death. For most people, the fact that we will all die someday is unnatural. It is not logical that, at some point, we would cease to exist. We have an inherent, inner knowledge that we are not supposed to die. The Bible describes the human spirit and soul as being eternal. The bodies that we occupy are not our true person. The body is used as a means of expressing ourselves and allowing other human beings to interact with us. At death, the spirit—our true person—departs the body; and the flesh decays and goes back into the elements of earth from where it was made. The spirit and the soul, which contains the mind and the emotions of a person, go on existing forever. When God created each one of us, He made us like Himself, eternal spirits who will live forever. At death, only the body dies, not the spirit. The final disposition of our spirit is determined by what we do while living in our bodies. God has described what He requires for our spirit to dwell in His presence. First, our sins must be dealt with and removed. Once we receive the provision that He has made for the removal of our sins—then we are perfectly fitted for heaven, with an eternal and perfect existence, with God.

Sin causes us to be alienated from God and the forfeiture of eternal life, living in His presence. God made a way possible for us to be perfect once again, as we were originally designed at the beginning of His creation. It was Adam’s sin that brought physical death to all human beings. Jesus ended the process of death and made it possible for all those who put their complete trust in Him, to live eternally with God. Those who refuse Jesus’ sacrifice as the payment for their sins will continue to live forever, yet excluded from the presence of God.

Here, God asks Job if he understands the process of death, where each one of us will pass through its gate. Those who have obeyed God and received His offer of salvation will pass through a gate into eternal life with God. Those who refuse to receive the pardon from sins that God has offered through Jesus’ sacrifice will pass through the gates of eternal death and forever live apart from God. This is an amazing comment to Job here by God; for no person has ever passed through the gate of death and returned to live forever, except Jesus Christ. There have been many people who have died and returned to their bodies, testifying of phenomenon that shocked and amazed them. All of these individuals died again later. Jesus died for the sins of the world and then, having bore all the punishment for those sins, rose from the dead to offer eternal life to anyone who would receive it. He will never die again as will those who put their complete trust in Him.

When you and I die, the Bible is specific that each one of us will pass through one of these gates. This is the primary topic of this book: to present you with sufficient evidence to trust Jesus as your Savior so that you might receive Him. Those who reject Jesus as their Savior will have squandered away a perfect life that they could have possessed forever. There are many people who are gambling on a hunch that God does not exist, without having the ability to prove whether their theory is true until after their death, when it will be too late to change their mind or their eternal destination. God said that we must make a decision for Jesus before we die; for after our life comes to an end, it will be too late. The Bible testifies that God does exist and in a very personal way, through the person of Jesus, the Christ. You will pass through the gates of death someday, and your eternal destiny will be determined solely on what you did with Jesus.

Revelation 1:18 Jesus said: “I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades and of Death.”

John 11:25-26 Jesus said: “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live. 26 And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?

11. The doors of the shadow of death

Job 38:17 …Or have you seen the doors of the shadow of death?

I did not really understand this verse of scripture until I had been with two loved ones who had died on separate occasions. If you have the unique experience of being with a person who passes from this life to the next, you will learn a few startling facts. First, near the time of their death, they become aware of a world outside this physical life here on earth. They notice beings and either light or darkness that is approaching, depending on whether or not they have been saved. In the case of my loved ones, both my dear wife and my father became greatly strengthened, in their spiritual awareness, of a dimension of life outside this earth in the final moments of their life. They both knew that their time on earth was at an end. At first, they were fearful; but having seen a glimpse into the world of the spirit that they were about to depart into, they took on an inner peace and tranquility of amazing reality. I was aware that they were looking into the doors of death and that they were at peace, having received Jesus as their Savior. For those who are trusting in Jesus for their salvation, when the moment arrives to go through the door of death, they do so with great joy and anticipation. God questions Job—that although he has suffered greatly, he has not apparently seen this door. “Job, have you seen death’s door? I have.” God said, “I have provided my Son who will come much later to die for your sins, Job. If you will trust in His coming salvation, I will allow you to pass through death’s door into my presence where you will live in perfection forever.”

John 10:9 Jesus said: “I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved…”

12. The breadth of the earth

Job 38:18 Have you comprehended the breadth of the earth? Tell Me, if you know all this.

The precise measurements of the earth weren’t known in Job’s day. The earth has a diameter of about 8,000 miles and a circumference of 25,000 miles. Though earth seems quite large, it is actually very small in the much bigger picture of the entire universe.

The Milky Way galaxy is where our sun and about 200-400 billion other stars are located. Within each of these 400 billion stars, there may be another 400 billion planets.[28] If you had the capacity to travel at the speed that light travels, 186,282 miles per second, it would still take you over 100,000 years just to cross our own Milky Way galaxy. Add to this immensity—perhaps an additional 300 Sextillion stars which are estimated to exist in the observable universe.[29] We are a tiny spec on a tiny spec in the midst of a universe of immense and unimaginable dimensions.

God asks Job if He has truly comprehended the immense size of the creation that He has made. How did God create this massive universe? How does He manage to keep it all together, and functioning with such great precision?

It seems to me that the Lord asks Job this question in light of all his doubts and fears over the massive trials that he has been suffering through. It is helpful, when we are suffering and feeling as if we are going through difficulties that we imagine no one else has ever experienced, to understand just how immense this universe is; and yet, the Lord has it all under control.

13. The dwelling of light and darkness

Job 38:19-20 Where is the way to the dwelling of light? And darkness, where is its place, 20 That you may take it to its territory, That you may know the paths to its home?

It is a little known phenomenon that darkness actually dwells within the spectrum of light. Researchers at the University of Glasgow and the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom made this startling discovery in 2008:

“Natural light fields are threaded by lines of darkness, which creates optical vortices that appear as black points within the light.”[30]

This should have come as no surprise, as the Bible speaks of darkness being divided from light in Genesis 1:4:

Genesis 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.

The Lord asks Job how light and darkness can be divided. The fact that God knew that darkness was contained within light and that it could be divided, is astounding. Science has only discovered this quality of light during the recent history of mankind. God demonstrates His knowledge of all the elements of His creation, even how light and darkness can be divided.

Scientists will tell you many technical terms for the properties of light, but they cannot tell you the origin of light. Only the Bible describes light as having its origin in God. One of the properties of God is that He is described as being brilliant light that is beyond comprehension. The power and intensity of this light is apparently outside the capacity of a human being to endure. The purity and Holiness of this light would immediately consume any earthly being who would stand in the presence of the light of God’s glory. It is for this reason that God will not show Himself in His full splendor to any man.

Exodus 33:20 But He said, “You cannot see My face; for no man shall see Me, and live.”

Psalms 104:1 …O LORD my God, You are very great: You are clothed with honor and majesty, 2 Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment, Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain.

1 John 1:5 This is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that God is light and in Him is no darkness at all.

1 Timothy 6:16 God, who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see, to whom be honor and everlasting power. Amen.

Jesus came to earth as God, dwelling within the body of a human being—His glory being shielded by human flesh.

John 1:14 So the Word became human and made his home among us. He was full of unfailing love and faithfulness. And we have seen his glory, the glory of the Fathers one and only Son. (NLT)

14. Number of Job’s days

Job 38:21 Do you know it, because you were born then, Or because the number of your days is great?

It is interesting the way in which the Lord questions Job. We, humans, seem to think that because we go to college and obtain advanced degrees in education, that we are qualified to speak on certain subjects with great expertise. Though knowledge may increase, we will only live on this planet a very short period of time. God, on the other hand, has lived forever. There is nothing that He does not know. All the treasuries of wisdom and knowledge are in Him. Every mathematical equation that man has learned, every scientific fact that mankind has knowledge of—God has designed and had knowledge of, for eternity.

Theoretical Physicists Michio Kaku said that in his estimation, “God is a mathematician.”[31] In explaining his theory, Dr. Kaku described Albert Einstein as having an acute sense—that God had engineered the universe by mathematics and that His calculations are very subtle but discoverable.

“When stumped with an intractable mathematical problem, he (Einstein) would often say, “God is subtle, but not malicious.”[32]

The point of the Lord’s comments to Job is that—as limited human beings, we should always keep in mind that there is far more that we do not know about the universe than we do know. Most honest Physicists, Scientists, and Astronomers will tell you that in their observations, the universe certainly has the appearance of design, symmetry, and order. They will also tell you that the chances that all of the precise elements that are required to make life possible on earth came about because the universe was designed from the beginning to allow life to exist. This reality of the universe maintains the appearance of design because it originated from a great and unlimited intelligent source.

In seeking knowledge, it would be wise of all men and woman to consider that there is an intelligence behind the universe and, with this premise, seek to understand how He accomplished this magnificent creation. This would seem more advantageous over the foolish notion that the universe exists by its own accord or by happenstance, which we know today is not possible.

Psalms 90:10-12 The days of our lives are seventy years; And if by reason of strength they are eighty years, Yet their boast is only labor and sorrow; For it is soon cut off, and we fly away. …12 So teach us to number our days.

James 4:14 whereas you do not know what will happen tomorrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapor that appears for a little time and then vanishes away.

15. The treasures of the snow

Job 38:22 Have you entered the treasury of snow…?

As human beings possess fingerprints which uniquely identify each one of us as someone unlike any other person who has ever existed, the Lord has placed His fingerprints on creation. In the treasury of the snow which God describes for Job, there is a hint of His creative mastery. Despite many studies that have attempted to prove that it is possible to find identical snowflakes, no two snowflakes have ever been discovered that are identical.[33]

This is a stunning example of the mastery of design that God has built into creation. Imagine the Trillions of snowflakes that have fallen on the earth, and yet each one is a stunning original. The counterpart to this amazing detail is that no two human beings have ever been exactly alike, in all the history of the earth. Even identical twins have different fingerprints.

God asked Job, in considering how much he actually comprehends of God: “Have you entered the treasury of the snow…?” It is certain that Job did not really understand this question, as the technology to see the fine details of a snowflake did not exist at that time. The Lord is revealing information of His engineering mastery, to a future generation who would be born thousands of years later. Long before any person possessed the ability to see the complexity and individuality of the snowflake, God knew that they were “treasures.”

16. The treasures of the hail

Job 38:22-23 Or have you seen the treasury of hail, 23 Which I have reserved for the time of trouble, For the day of battle and war?

Hail is used as an instrument of God’s wrath throughout the Bible. When Pharaoh refused to release God’s people from slavery in Egypt, the Lord sent hail as judgement upon the Egyptians—while He spared His own people.

Exodus 9:19 Therefore send now and gather your livestock and all that you have in the field, for the hail shall come down on every man and every animal which is found in the field and is not brought home; and they shall die.

During the last three and one half years of the Great Tribulation, hail stones that weigh as much as 100 pounds each will fall upon men.

Revelation 16:21 And great hail from heaven fell upon men, each hailstone about one hundred pounds. Men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, since that plague was exceedingly great.

In this example, the Lord shows His power over the natural elements of earth. He can use natural phenomenon to accomplish supernatural events. We should be aware of the everyday ordinary occurrences that take place in our life and realize that the Lord may be working in the background.

17. The light and the winds

Job 38:24 By what way is light diffused, Or the east wind scattered over the earth?

Nearly everything that we are able to see as human beings is made possible by the diffusion of light. When light strikes an object, it is reflected and strikes other objects, making them visible to the human eye. The room that you are in, at this moment, is filled with light because of the ability that light has to diffuse itself. At the time that the Lord was speaking these words to Job, neither he nor any other person on the earth comprehended the qualities of light as being diffused (spread). It seems that this comment by the Lord was meant as an advanced piece of information for a future generation which would demonstrate—God was aware of certain attributes of the creation that He made, long before these things were discovered by man.

The process of the winds, moving clouds over the earth, picking up moisture and depositing it on the land as it moves over the earth, was not understood by those who lived during the time of Job. God has engineered an amazing process called the hydrologic cycle.

The Hydrologic Cycle[34]

Over 121,000 cubic miles of precipitation falls upon the earth every year.[35] If it was not for this amazing mechanical ingenuity created by the Lord, to water our planet, there would be no life possible. God is again asking Job if he comprehends the vast importance of this feature of the earth. Most of us take it for granted that there will be enough rain to make plants and animals grow so that we can live and thrive on this planet. Every day, the Lord is ensuring that our planet has enough water to meet all the needs of earth’s seven billion people. He does this with no effort or expending of energy. He simply orders these things to be done, and they are.

18. The watercourse, lightning, thunder, and rains

Job 38:25-27 Who has divided a channel for the overflowing water, Or a path for the thunderbolt, 26 To cause it to rain on a land where there is no one, A wilderness in which there is no man; 27 To satisfy the desolate waste, And cause to spring forth the growth of tender grass?

Amongst all of the characteristics of the earth that the Lord could describe, He follows a pattern in challenging Job. In many of the Lord’s declarations to Job, He describes certain characteristics of the wind, rain, hail, lightning, ice, and snow.

What we learn from this discourse with Job is that God is in control over the weather that occurs on earth. Many religions of the world teach that God is not actively involved in the personal affairs of human beings. The weather and natural elements of earth are left to run on their own. The God of the Bible is described as being actively involved in all of the smallest details of every human life. Nothing happens at any time that the Lord is not involved in by some manner or procedure. Here, Job is informed that God controls each of the lightning strikes on the earth. The following details reveals what a great accomplishment this is.

Every second of every hour, there are 40-50 lightning strikes somewhere on the earth. Each year, lightning strikes our planet almost 1 billion 400 million times.[36] Add to this amazing fact, the reality that every single one of these thunderbolts are ordered and controlled by the Lord. He knows where they come from, where they are going, and how great their power will be in every single strike.

To the present day, scientists still do not understand fully the mechanisms that causes an electrical charge to build up and release lightning. When more than 3 million volts of charge occurs in 3 feet or less, an electrical charge results in a lightning strike.[37]

The Lord has engineered this amazing phenomenon that is one of the most beautiful, stunning, and frightening occurrences seen on the earth. He apparently does this to display His glory and great power, so that we might all stand in awe of Him and give Him the worship that He is worthy of.

Jeremiah 10:13 When He speaks, There is a multitude of waters in the heavens: “And He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth. He causes lightning for the rain, He brings the wind out of His treasuries.”

19. The origin of rain

Job 38:28 Has the rain a father?

Did you know that the rain has a father? When the skies darken and the clouds drop their rain, how many of us stop and acknowledge that God is causing moisture to water our planet? Imagine the care, the great power and wisdom that it would take to control all the rain over the entire planet at any given time. I have often imagined that one of the reasons that the Lord created the universe was partly for the challenge of having so many things to do simultaneously. He certainly must enjoy acting and ordering all the elements of this earth and every square inch of the vast universe. At the same time, he can hear the prayers of seven billion people and answer each one, in a single moment. He never grows weary; He is never overburdened. There is nothing too hard for the great and mightily God of the universe.

Jesus gave us a glimpse into the intricate and detailed care that God has for every creature, even the smallest and most insignificant.

God notices when a bird falls to the ground:

Matthew 10:29 Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin? And not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will.

He clothes the flowers and the grass:

Luke 12:27-28 Consider the lilies, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin; and yet I say to you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 28 If then God so clothes the grass, which today is in the field and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, how much more will He clothe you, O you of little faith?

Knowing that He has such great love and care for each one of us, should we really worry about anything?

20. The origin of dew drops

Job 38:28 …Or who has begotten the drops of dew?

If you have sat outside on a hot summer day and noticed that the outside of your glass of iced tea has accumulated water droplets? This is the result of the phenomenon know as “dew.” When the outside temperature of the glass is lowered by the cold ice within the glass, the relative humidity surrounding the glass is increased, causing the water vapor in the air to cling to the glass.

Here, the Lord informs Job by His rhetorical statement, that even something as mundane and common as dew or humidity is a sign of His existence, love, and power. He created humidity—the ability of air to hold water vapor to cool and water plants and people here on the earth. I live part of the year in Paradise Valley, Arizona. The relative humidity in this area is in the low teens during the summer, when temperatures rise to nearly 115 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat of this area is so dry, that it often feels like a hot blast furnace upon your face due to the low humidity of the air. During the winter months, I make my home on the beach of a small island in the Philippines, where the relative humidity is often above 90 percent. After a while, we just get used to being wet all of the time. The moisture in the air acts as a natural air conditioning to cool our bodies, as the gentle ocean breeze flows in from the sea.

We probably don’t consider that the temperature and humidity, and simple dew that covers the earth are all loving reminders that God has built us a wonderful place to live here on the earth. If any of the finely balanced constants of nature that are present on the earth were modified even slightly, all our lives would quickly end; and there would be no life on earth at all. The size of our planet—the size and proximity of the moon, the sun, and other planets in our solar system—even the placement of our galaxy in the universe—were all ordered in such a way to make life possible. You can read the chapter in this book, The Moment of Creation, for a detailed list of the many absolutes which exist on the earth and in the universe itself, that God has finely balanced so that we can live wonderful lives on this planet.

21. The origin of ice

Job 38:29 From whose womb comes the ice? And the frost of heaven, who gives it birth?

As the Lord reminds Job that the simple dew is by God’s design, so also is the ice that forms at temperatures 32 degrees Fahrenheit and below. The earth has four seasons that most of us probably take for granted. When I lived in the high country of Northern Arizona, where winters are quite cold and snow often covers the ground, I loved living in a climate that changed four times a year. In 2011, I built a small home on the beach of a tiny island in the Pacific that has an average yearly temperature of about 80 degrees. I thought when I first began to live on the white sand beach of Bantayan Island, that I had found paradise. I could live in shorts and flip flops year round and go swimming in 85-degree water any time of the year. After 10 months, I began to miss the cooler weather. The change in the seasons was something that I had not realized that I would miss. It seems to me that God built us an earth with four seasons, so that we would have a change in climates to keep our interest and satisfy our need for variety in our lives.

There are times when ice and snow are refreshing, provide recreation and entertainment, as well as allowing us to enjoy a cozy afternoon under a blanket by a crackling fire. The Love that God had for Job was such, that He wanted to remind him that although he had suffered immensely under trials that he did not deserve, the Lord was in control of everything that happened to Job, just as He is in control over ice and dew and every element of the earth. The Lord is also with us in our trials, and He will never leave us nor forsake us. This present world is not the glorious ideal that God originally planned for us. Through the sin of mankind, this earth and all life has been greatly diminished. We should be reminded that God has done something astounding to stop sin and death and restore the earth and our lives back to perfection. God sent His Son to die so that we could have the opportunity to respond to Him, receive His sacrifice for our sins, and be reconciled to God. In the new world that will soon arrive, as Jesus returns and recreates a new heavens and the earth, our lives will be perfect forever; and we will live in consummate joy, and never become sick or die again.

22. The origin of frost

Job 38:29-30 From whose womb comes the ice? And the frost of heaven, who gives it birth? 30 The waters harden like stone, And the surface of the deep is frozen.

The process that hardens water into frost is the work of God. This is the subtle but profound reality of these many points that God makes before Job. God is in all of the details of this life. Every microsecond of our existence, the Lord is there, ensuring that we are blessed. He accomplishes these marvelous feats of engineering wonder for the evil and the good. To the evil: He is good in the hope that, by His kindness, people might be brought to repentance and turn their lives over to Him so that He can save and bless them forever. To those who love God already: His care will extend into eternity, where there will be fullness of joy and pleasures forevermore.

23. Binding and loosing of Pleiades and the bands of Orion

Job 38:31 Can you bind the cluster of the Pleiades, Or loose the belt of Orion?

It is interesting that the Lord chose the Pleiades cluster of stars for His illustration. Unique amongst the many trillions of stars in the universe, the Pleiades is a large cluster of bright stars that are moving together through the universe. The influence of their mutual gravity, although invisible, binds them together. In the Lord speaking of a group of stars, that today we know numbers greater than 1,000, and describing this massive cluster as being bound together—God shows His knowledge of the universe.

Previously, the Lord described certain phenomena that are present on the earth and the fact that He orders and controls these elements for the mutual benefit of mankind. Here, the Lord begins to expand His declaration of knowledge to the universe itself.

Can you bind the cluster of the Pleiades?

This question is asked of Job, 2,400 years before anyone on earth knew that the stars of the Pleiades moved in unison with each other. Only during the recent history of mankind have astrophysicists discovered that this large cluster of stars are bound together by gravity and move as a single unit. The Hebrew word for “bind” is qushar, meaning to tie together or link as one. It is impossible that a man had knowledge of the stars of the Pleiades being held together by gravity at the time of Job. It would not be until 1687 that Isaac Newton developed the concept of gravity and published his theories in the “Principia.”

Continuing in a display of supernatural knowledge of space, the Lord asks Job:

“Can you… loose the belt of Orion?

Orion consists of the three bright stars: Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka.

Alnitak is 100,000 times brighter than our Sun and 28 times larger.[38] • Alnilam is 375,000 times brighter than our Sun and is a blue supergiant, the 30th brightest star in the sky. Located in the highest point of the night sky at midnight, Alnilam is one of 57 stars used for celestial navigation. Due to winds over 4,474,800 miles per hour, this star is losing its mass more than 20 times faster than our own Sun. At this rate, this supergiant will expend all its fuel and become a red supergiant, exploding into a supernova in the next 1 million years.[39] • Mintaka is 90,000 times brighter than our Sun. A United States Navy Crater-class cargo ship was named after this star.

All three of these stars are moving away from each other, independent of each other, at different speeds. In fact, all of the stars of the Pleiades are moving independent of each other. From our perspective here on earth, they appear to be traveling together on the same course as a belt; but this is not the case. At some point in the distant future, they will all be far apart and no longer appear together.

Astronomer and Science writer Garrett Putnam Serviss described this stunning phenomenon:

“At the present time this band consists of an almost perfect straight line, a row of second-magnitude stars about equally spaced and of the most striking beauty. In the course of time, however, the two right-hand stars, Mintaka and Alnilam, will approach each other and form a naked-eye double; but the third, Alnitak, will drift away eastward so that the belt will no longer exist.”[40]

These bright stars are not bound together gravitationally as the Pleiades are, yet they appear to be traveling together across the night sky. Knowing that the opposite is true of the stars of Orion from the stars of the Pleiades, the Lord asks the opposite question concerning them.

Of the Pleiades, the Lord asks, “Can you bind them?”
Of Orion, the Lord asks, “Can you loose them?”

The Pleiades are bound together by gravity, and it would take tremendous force to loose these stars. The stars of Orion are not held together by gravity and are moving away from each other by great speed; in fact, it would take a tremendous force to bind them.

Although these stars of Orion’s belt look as though they are closer together than stars that are farther out in the constellation, they are really farther apart than the outer stars of the constellation.

No man on the face of the earth knew these facts about the Pleiades nor Orion, yet the Book of Job contains precise details regarding their movements through space and makes comments detailing their true nature. God speaks of the power that He has, which has brought these massive stars together, and the fact that it is by His will that they move and exist in the Pleiades and Orion’s belt.

24. Mazzaroth in its season

Job 38:32 Can you bring out Mazzaroth in its season?

The “Mazzaroth” is the Hebrew name for the 12 constellations that are commonly known as the signs of the Zodiac. Although satan has corrupted the original purpose of these stars, which was to show the glory of God, they still maintain their original Hebrew names. Each one of these names were given by God, and each name carries a specific meaning. When these names are recited together, they amazingly reflect the story of the Christian gospel.

Since God is the Creator of all the stars and calls each one by name, it is possible that He has a special purpose in the naming of these stars.

Psalms 147:4 He numbers all of the stars; he calls them all by name.[41]

David wrote that the heavens declare and speak a message from God.

Psalms 19:1-3 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows his handiwork. 2 Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night shows knowledge. 3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

From the beginning of the oral tradition of the Hebrews, when the scriptures were first memorized and repeated to each generation, there was a gospel message that was recorded in the names of the twelve constellations of the Mazzaroth.[42] I am not speaking of Astrology, which came much later, but the original names that God gave the stars that are in these twelve constellations.

The following list has—first, the secular names for each of the twelve constellations; second, the name given to them by God; and third, the meaning of each name:

• Virgo – Bethulah – Virgin, seed of a woman
• Libra – Mozanaiun – Man insufficient, unable to pay the price
• Scorpio – Akrab – The Dragon underfoot, seeking to destroy
• Sagittarius – Kesith – One with two natures (God/man), conquering
• Capricorn – Gedi– The Lamb’s Atonement for the Redeemed
• Aquarius – Deli – Living Water poured on the redeemed
• Pisces – Dagim – The Redeemed blessed, though bound
• Aries – Taleh – The Lamb that was slain
• Taurus – Shur,Reem – The Messiah coming to rule
• Gemini – Thaumim – The two natures of the King: God and man
• Cancer – Al Sartan – The Possession (Church) held fast
• Leo – Arieh – The Lion destroying the serpent

I had intended to include a separate chapter, describing in great detail the story that is revealed in these 12 constellations. I believe that there is some merit to the story; but until I finalize my own position on this matter, I will leave the subject with the above information for your consideration. You can find many sources for the “Gospel in the Stars,” should you care to study it further.

If the Mazzaroth does in fact tell the gospel of Jesus Christ, then this would be a stunning revelation of the words that God spoke to Job, that He “brings out the Mazzaroth in its season.”

25. Arcturus and its sons

Job 38:32 …Or can you guide the Great Bear with its cubs?

The name “Arcturus” originated from the Greek word “arktos,” which means “Bear.” This is why you will see these two names used interchangeably.

Arcturus is a Red Giant star that is 26 times larger than our own Sun.

Arcturus[43]

Often referred to as “The Runaway Star,” this giant moves through the universe at an astounding speed of nearly 1 million miles per hour.[44]

Professor Charles Burckhalter, Astronomer and past President of the Chabot Observatory in Oakland California, describes Arcturus:

“This high velocity places Arcturus in that very small class of stars that apparently are a law unto themselves. He is an outsider, a visitor, a stranger within the gates; to speak plainly, Arcturus is a runaway. Newton gives the velocity of a star under control as not more than 25 miles a second, and Arcturus is going 257 miles a second. Therefore, combined attraction of all the stars we know cannot stop him or even turn him in his path.”

Later, when Professor Burckhalter was informed by one of his students that God had spoken to Job regarding the difficulty of guiding Arcturus through the universe, he said this:

“The study of the Book of Job and its comparison with the latest scientific discoveries has brought me to the matured conviction that the Bible is an inspired book and was written by the One who made the stars.”[45]

The Great Bear that God speaks of to Job is actually a large constellation of stars in the northern hemisphere, that is referred to as Ursa Major.

Most people know this constellation as The Big Dipper.

The Big Dipper[46]

If you draw a line through Merak and Dubhe, you will find the North Star call “Polaris.”

If we could travel on a beam of light that moves at 186,000 miles per second, it would take us almost 80 years to get to the closest star in this constellation. The closest galaxy in the Ursa Major constellation is Messier 81, which is 11.8 million light years from the earth.

Other notable galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation:

M81 is a nearly face-on spiral galaxy, 11.8 million light years from Earth.
M82 is a galaxy that is interacting gravitationally with M81.
M97, also called the Owl Nebula—a planetary nebula, 1,630 light years from Earth.
M101, the Pinwheel Galaxy, is a face-on spiral galaxy, 25 million light years from Earth.
NGC 2787 is a lenticular galaxy, 24 million light years from earth.
NGC 3079, a starburst spiral galaxy, 52 million light years from Earth. It has a horseshoe-shaped structure at its center that indicates that is has a supermassive black hole. The structure itself is formed by super winds from the black hole.[47] • NGC 3310 is another starburst spiral galaxy, located 50 million light years from Earth.
NGC 4013 is an edge-on spiral galaxy, located 55 million light years from Earth.
I Zwicky 18 is a young dwarf galaxy at a distance of 45 million light years. The youngest known galaxy in the visible universe, about 4 million years old, about one-thousandth the age of the Solar System.

The Bible describes the fact that God has named all of the stars. Astrophysicists today have revised their estimates for the total number of stars in the universe to over 300 Sextillion.[48]

Psalms 147:4 He numbers all of the stars; he calls them all by name.[49]

To give you an idea how long it would take to name each one of these stars: Naming one star every second, it would take you 31 years and 252 days to count just 1 billion stars.[50] If the Lord began naming each of the 300 Sextillion stars, one per second for the entire estimated age of the universe at 13.7 billion years, He would still be naming stars today. Of course, He named them all in a single instant. He didn’t need time; He lives in eternity.

(300 sextillion contains 23 zeros: 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)

The Milky Way galaxy that earth inhabits is over 100,000 light years in diameter. Our sun moves at 483,000 miles per hour and takes over 225 million years to make one trip through the Milky Way, called one galactic year. The universe itself is expanding, moving at 670 million miles per hour.

Displaying His great knowledge of the universe, describing specific constellations and individual stars, the Lord questions Job in His continuing rhetorical fashion. The fact that God knew these specific details so far in advance of man’s acquisition of this knowledge, defines these many details in Job Chapter 38 as prophetic and revelatory. We see that God is the designer, builder, and sustainer of all that exists.

26. The ordinances of heaven

Job 38:33 Do you know the ordinances of the heavens?

God questions Job as to whether he understands the laws of the universe. Perhaps, the greatest advocates for a universe designed by intelligence are a new generation of Physicists, Mathematicians, and Astrophysicist, who have discovered that the existence of the universe compels an acknowledgment that it does not exist as a result of a cosmic accident but for a purpose.

Particle Physicist Dr. Peter Bussey stated:

“When you look at the way the mathematics of the universe works, and how cleaver it is, you can’t help feeling that to have this happen by accident is incomprehensible. There really needs to be some sort of mind there behind it all.”[51]

Some of the greatest minds in the world today have come to the very same conclusion as Dr. Bussey. When the math and physics calculations are concluded, the answers are always the same: There are certain undeniable laws that govern the universe which make its existence possible. All of us understand that in order for laws to exist, a mind had to develop these laws. Laws do not come about by random chance. Mathematics cannot evolve; it is based on a set of absolutes.

Galileo was an Italian astronomer, mathematician, physicists, and philosopher, who is described as “the father of modern observational astronomy, father of modern physics, and the father of all science”[52] Considered one of the greatest scientific minds the world has ever known, Galileo said this about the universe:

“The universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth.”[53]

The universe is written in mathematics; it is a language universal to an understanding of all things contained within the Cosmos. For this reason, we understand that it does not have a human origin. Human beings have developed the numbers, symbols, computations, and equations; but they have not created the laws of mathematics, to which the universe owes its existence.

God asks Job if he knows the “ordinances of heaven.” An ordinance is an edict, decree, law, injunction, order, or rule.[54] The laws or rules of the universe are governed by an invisible yet understandable complex set of mathematics that came from an infinite intelligence. The order that mathematics displays cannot be produced by random chance. The structures that are revealed are so precise that it is clear they came from an unimaginable intelligent being, who used these calculations to create the universe and then left their evidence as proof of His existence.

27. The dominion of heaven in earth

Job 38:33 Can you set their dominion over the earth?

Continuing with the theme that God has developed in the previous statement that He has made to Job, the mastery of the universe is described by God. The implications of this verse interest me a great deal. It seems that the Lord is implying that the entire mastery of the profound universe is set before the earth as a public display of God’s power and intelligence. This would go hand in hand with the Psalms of David, in which he writes in describing the heavens:

Psalms 19:1-2 The universe declare the glory of God; And the Cosmos shows His handiwork. 2 every day it speaks to us, every night it increases our knowledge of God.[55]

There is much discussion on the subject of intelligent life somewhere else in the universe. It has been stated that if there were no other life anywhere else, that the universe would be a tremendous waste of space. Those who say such things are viewing the universe from the perspective of a naturalist. When God made the universe, He did so with a purpose. That purpose was to reveal who He is and His great power. When we read at the end of the Bible—the Book of Revelation—there is a great declaration that is heard in heaven, coming from all the creatures who have the ability to give praise to God.

Revelation 5:13 And all the creatures which are in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and those that are in the sea, and all that are in them, I heard saying: “Blessing and honor and glory and power Be to Him who sits on the throne, And to Jesus, the Lamb, forever and ever!”[56]

There is no voice or speech from any distant planet or far corner of the universe.

Of course, this does not mean that God has not ever created any other beings other than mankind or the angels. It simply means that at the conclusion of the present universe and the kingdoms of this earth, only mankind and the angels are seen bringing praise to God. For the descendants of Adam, humankind are the only beings that are ever spoken of as being the beneficiaries of God’s great act of Grace in sending His son to die for our sins.

David wrote that the purpose of the universe was to display the centerpiece of God’s artwork—the earth—where one race of beings are the object of God’s great love and affection. In my estimation, this may be precisely what this 27th point of Job chapter 38:33 is describing. The purpose of the universe is didactic.

That God, the maker of the universe, should care for us who are so small and so insignificant in the bigger and more profound statement of the Cosmos; yet, He seems to have made the universe for us to show us His great power and offer to every skeptic the proof that He exists, and by the things that God has made—we can all know Him.

Romans 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse...

28. Control of the clouds

Job 38:34 Can you lift up your voice to the clouds, That an abundance of water may cover you?

Having given us profound information about the universe and the laws and purposes for its existence, the Lord returns now to earth to discuss His power and sovereignty.

The process of clouds acquiring moisture from the seas, moving over land, and dropping water over continents is a feat of engineering genius. Every year of our lives, we take it for granted the fact that rain and snow will fall upon our earth. We do not stop to realize how marvelous this phenomenon is. The Hydrological cycle—the winds, rains, snow, and other elements of weather—are a stunning proof for the engineering genius of the Lord. Change the size of the earth, the rotation cycles, axis tilt, or size of our moon, in the slightest, and our weather on earth would be perilous. If it were not for the fact that the weather patterns on earth are, for the most part, beneficial to mankind, we would not be able to enjoy life on this planet. We see brief examples of what the earth could be like all of the time if the Lord had not designed the earth by a supernatural plan of delicate balance: when a Tornado touches down and destroys homes and towns, when earthquakes rock our cities, when massive rain produces flooding and the loss of life. Most of these extreme weather scenarios occur in certain specific places on the earth. Although people know that there is great danger of these weather events destroying homes, property, and lives—they still build homes and cities in the path of tornadoes, near geologic fault lines of earthquake prone sites, and near areas known to flood. When there is great loss of property and life, it is people who are to blame for building and living in an unsafe area—not God.

Despite these rare weather tragedies, they are but blinks in the total number of beneficial weather events that allow all life to exist on the earth.

The Lord asks Job if he is able to influence the weather. Yet, everyday, God lovingly cares for us by making the rains fall to satisfy the earth’s need for moisture in order to sustain our food sources, forests, and fill our reservoirs so that we have water when the faucets of our homes are turned on. God is marvelous; and His work of making the weather for our benefit is an ever present example of His existence, love, and care.

29. Sending lightnings

Job 38:35 Can you send out lightnings, that they may go, And say to you, “Here we are!”?

As in point number 18, the Lord describes lightning as an expression of His power and strength. There are four occurrences of lightning in the Book of Revelation:

Before the Throne of God
Revelation 4:5 From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder. Before the throne, seven lamps were blazing. These are the seven spirits of God. (NIV)

At Judgement, during the seven-year Tribulation
Revelation 8:5 Then the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and hurled it on the earth; and there came peals of thunder, rumblings, flashes of lightning and an earthquake. (NIV)

When the ark is seen in heaven
Revelation 11:19 Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and within his temple was seen the ark of his covenant. And there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake and a great hailstorm. (NIV)

In heaven, as a judgement on earth occurs
Revelation 16:18 Then there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder and a severe earthquake. No earthquake like it has ever occurred since man has been on earth, so tremendous was the quake. (NIV)

Lightning is one of the phenomena that manifests itself as a result of God’s presence in heaven and during the last half of the seven-year Tribulation, when His judgment is released upon those who worship the beast.

Lightning occurs as a result of massive electrostatic discharges between electrically charged components. It appears that the presence of God conveys His great power in the form of a large electrical charge, which results in lightning being displayed. Here, God asks Job if he knows of any being in which their presence causes lightning to be manifested. Of course, the answer is no. None of us have this power; and therefore, we should rightfully stand in awe of God and reserved great respect for the Lord of the universe.

30. Wisdom in the inward parts

Job 38:36 Who has put wisdom in the mind?

Items 30 and 31 deal with the Lord’s knowledge of the human soul, the mind, and the heart. The preeminent evidence for the existence of God and His signature on human life is, in my opinion, the spirit of a human being. We possess an inner working copy of the image of God that allows us the ability to think, reason, deduce, contemplate, measure, ponder, and determine every individual event and circumstance of our life. The animal kingdom is directed by instinct and impulse that dictate all of their behaviors. Animals do not have the ability to reason and contemplate their existence and ask the important questions: “Why am I here and what is my purpose?”

Human beings have the capacity to acquire both knowledge and wisdom, and use these skills to determine the course of their life while here on earth. No other living creature possesses these capabilities.

While knowledge comes by study, wisdom comes as a gift from God. There is a profound difference between acquiring knowledge by education and possessing the wisdom necessary to use that knowledge. There are millions of very intelligent and highly educated men and women in the world today, with the letters “Ph.D.” behind their names. The conveyance of an educational degree does not, however, grant a person the wisdom that is required to utilize their education in order to make wise decisions and enjoy a successful and fulfilling life.

Wisdom is given as a gift from God to those who honor and love Him. The wisdom that God grants a human being is imparted through a knowledge of His word by trials and through a personal relationship with Him.

Proverbs 2:6 For the LORD gives wisdom, and from his mouth come knowledge and understanding. (NIV)

Psalms 111:10 To honor the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; all those who practice it have a good understanding… (RCR)

God imparts wisdom from His mind to the mind of the receptive party who grants control of their heart, mind, and will to the will of God. The natural man—those who have not experienced a spiritual rebirth as described in the New Testament (John 3:3-18)—do not have the ability to discern spiritual matters; and therefore, the things of God and His word are seen as foolishness.

1 Corinthians 2:14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

1 Corinthians 1:21, 27-28 Since God in his wisdom saw to it that the world would never know him through human wisdom… 27 Instead, God chose things the world considers foolish in order to shame those who think they are wise. And he chose things that are powerless to shame those who are powerful. 28 God chose things despised by the world, things counted as nothing at all, and used them to bring to nothing what the world considers important. (NLT)

The beginning of true wisdom is to acknowledge God and His creative and sovereign power over the universe and every creature. No person, irregardless of their education or recognition by the world, can possesses true wisdom apart from God. I have met some of the most intelligent people who lack good judgment and wise discernment in how to live their lives. They excel in notoriety, are widely acclaimed as being amongst the smartest men and women on the planet, while their personal lives are in ruins.

The wisdom to make good decisions in our life can only come from the one who made us and knows us intimately. This knowledge is revealed in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. Any person who studies the Proverbs of Solomon and begins to put these precepts into practice in their own life will very quickly become a person of great wisdom.

It is my opinion that those possessing only human education do not have the capacity to comprehend the true nature of the universe. Lacking the simple foundation that the Cosmos was made for us by an intelligence not unlike us—for we came from Him—these individuals cannot comprehend the purpose of the material world nor the reason for its existence. God made all things to prove His existence, and display His great power to all creation.

I recently watched an interesting debate between Professor Richard Dawkins and Dr. John Lennox. I was struck by the utter sincerity of Professor Dawkins in his proclamations of Atheism. Although I believe him to be in error, I was aware that in the mind of Professor Dawkins, he really believes the things that he so vigorously preaches. After listening to professor Dawkins for a period of time, I was able to understand that he does not have the capacity to perceive the things of God, precisely because he has not acknowledge the existence of God. The Bible is specific in that a naturally born human being does not have the capacity to understand the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foreign, even foolishness to him.

1 Corinthians 2:14 The man without the Spirit (of God) does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. (NIV)

A person must be born again by the Spirit of God first before he can understand the things that come from God’s heart and mind. A person is born a second time by the Spirit of God only upon an acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah, to whom God has committed all authority for the redemption of human beings. Without this second birth, the Bible will be a mystery; and the true nature and origin of the universe itself will be unknown, no matter how intelligent a person might be. God does not reveal Himself to the intelligent but to the humble and true seeker of the one God of the universe.

Jeremiah 29:13 You will seek me and find me when you seek me with all your heart. (NIV)

God does not grant perception of Himself in the deeper spiritual matters, beyond what is necessary for simple faith, to be converted. When the first steps are taken to believe what God has said about sin, salvation, and God’s solution for what these conditions require—upon acting in the manner that God requires, He grants a new spiritual birth by His Spirit. Subsequently, He also grants wisdom in the inner parts, as God describes it here in point 30.

1 Corinthians 2:14 The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. (NIV)

31. Understanding in the heart

Job 38:36 Or who has given understanding to the heart?

In the previous example, I spoke of wisdom that is given by God which allows a person with knowledge, the ability to think—in some manner—the same way that God thinks. Here, in God’s proclamation of granting understanding in the heart, He is speaking of taking a conscious awareness of God and imputing it to the human heart, where the emotions and power of reason are stored.

It is not enough for a person to come to an intellectual knowledge of God or the Messiah, Jesus Christ. All those who will be saved must also believe these things in their heart. It is in the heart that we put into action what our mind believes. All information that a human being receives comes first to the mind, then is believed in the heart. Finally, those things that we truly believe will be acted upon by the words and actions of our life.

When anyone receives Jesus as their Messiah and agrees with God that their sins require a Savior’s actions to remove those sins, God imparts salvation. It is really just this simple; while at the same time, quite difficult for some people. Salvation requires humility, acknowledgement of wrongs committed, and a willingness to do what God requires. Jesus has paid the full price for all the sins of the world and has accomplished salvation for all people. Upon repentance (a change of heart and mind) from past sins and a receiving of Jesus into the heart, followed by a public acknowledgment of Him as Savior, God grants the complete forgiveness of sins and eternal life.

Romans 10:9-10 That if you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10 For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved. (NIV)

The greatest part of the first 50 prophecies that are detailed in this book deal with this subject of how God has accomplished salvation for all human beings through the Messiah.

32. The number of clouds

Job 38:37 Who can number the clouds by wisdom?

Numbering the clouds by wisdom is a continuation of the previous item.

The action that takes place in the clouds which allows for rain, is an extraordinary process. In order for rain to be possible, a phenomenon known as “cloud condensation nuclei” is necessary.[57] Dust particles as small as 1/100th the size of a rain droplet are the vehicles that cause the formation of water vapor, which becomes a drop of rain. For this process to take place, a highly organized process of condensation is necessary. Once the tiny dust particle forms condensation, it must be supercooled to about 8 Degrees Fahrenheit for 5-6 hours, before water droplets begin to spontaneously form in the cloud chamber.[58]

The water droplets that form as a result of this technical process fall in the form of rain under the force of gravity. The majority of fresh water supplies on the earth come from rainfall. Without the abundance of rain everyday that falls all over the earth, we would not be able to produce food, fresh water, clean our clothes, or bathe ourselves.

The Lord informs Job that what seems simple to us is often made possible by extremely complex engineering processes that God has created for the earth.

Everyday, we live on a planet that has been specifically designed for life—by a creative mind of unimaginable intelligence. It seems to me that to surmise that all of these vast processes, which are so delicately balanced for life, came about naturally on their own, is the height of imbecility.

We live on a planet where the existence of God is self-evident. For those who are looking for evidence, there is more than enough to convince any rational person. For those who have developed a heart that does not want to believe that God is the source of life, they will never see enough evidence to convince and change their mind.

33. The bottles of heaven

Job 38:37 Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven

I believe that there are two occasions in which the Lord covered the earth with water in judgement. Once, before Adam was created; once after (see The Moment of Creation). The immense volume of water that would be required to cover the earth to the tallest mountain in incalculable. We know that beneath the surface of land on the earth, there is a great volume of water called the fountains of the deep.

Genesis 8:2 2 The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. (KJV)

When the Lord ordered the destruction of the earth during the time of Noah, the rains that fell during the 40 days, would not have been sufficient to flood the entire earth. It was the massive volume of water under the surface of the land that added the immense quantity necessary to flood the entire planet.

Here, the Lord reminds Job of a past event that had taken place on the earth, that perhaps Job was aware of, when God covered the entire surface of the planet with water before Adam. In this remembrance, Job is to understand the great power of God to accomplish such things and the fact that all of His purposes, including Job’s trials, are under the direction of God.

34. The dust and clods of earth

Job 38:38 When the dust hardens in clumps, And the clods cling together?

Finally, in this last exhibition of God’s power and sovereignty, He brings us back to our beginning, when He made us from the elements of the earth—the dust.

Genesis 3:19 19 In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return unto the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and unto dust shall you return. (UKJV)

In these simple examples that God uses—the dust that hardens and the clods of dirt that cling together—we might miss the subtlety of the message. After all that the Lord has told Job, He brings him back to the most basic of principles, which all of us should remember in our life: We are made from the simple elements of the earth; we are temporal; and our life has a fixed amount of time. God, who transcends time, space, and matter, is the source of all life. He is infinitely greater in wisdom than all the cumulative knowledge of all people, for all time. He is perfect in everything that He does, and all His works are good and righteous.

When we think of the universe, the earth, and life itself, we should consider that each of us will someday give an account to God for how we have lived our life. There is only one God who has made all things, and the evidence for His existence is overwhelming. He has left to us a stunning record of His creative majesty and great power. We can stubbornly refuse to acknowledge what is obvious and then stand before Him with no excuse for why we would not accept His offer of love and salvation, or we can wisely acknowledge His claim over our lives and submit to His loving rule.

He has left the decision to us, and He will continue to patiently wait for our answer. The God of the universe waits for us to want Him, and He earnestly desires that we come into a knowledge of His great love for us and the countless number of times that He has tried to reach our mind and heart with the reality of His message. God loved each one of us so much that He was willing to give His only Son to die and take the penalty for all of our sins. If we will simply believe this truth and receive Jesus as our Messiah, then God will have a just basis to bestow upon us all the blessing of heaven and a life eternal in His presence—which is—marvelous beyond comprehension.

A universe without God is irrational.

It is utter foolishness to try to explain the universe without God. What we observe is a universe of Brobdingnagian size and complexity that could not have come into existence apart from an eternal and infinite mind.

The basic premise for understanding the universe is to acknowledge what we observe: A universe so immense and complex, that it necessitates a Creator. Without this basic acknowledgment, we will never know anything of why and how the universe operates.

To try and do so will leave out the most basic questions that must be answered before all others. One: How did the universe come from nothing? Two: Where did life come from?

Evolution cannot answer these questions, even after 150 years of Darwinian doctrine, first postulated his theory. All that evolution had accurately explained so far—is how life developed after it appeared on earth; it does not tell us how and why life came into existence in the first place.

To imagine that the universe has no first cause is to assume that anything can come into existence without a cause. We do not observe this phenomenon having occurred anywhere in the universe, except during one infinite reality—God.

The Atheists asks the question, “Who created God?”, assuming that His existence necessitated a cause. This is a fundamental error that atheists make in their inability to perceive God. They imagine that such a God must be created; we do not. In this regard, believe in the God that the Atheists does not believe in.[59] The God of the Bible is self-existent, having no beginning or end, requiring no first cause. He has always existed and is the source of all life, matter, and energy.

For this reason, we must ask the Atheists: What kind of God are you speaking of that you do not believe in? If you believe that God is created, then we agree with you—a created God does not exist.[60]

Biblical Christians do not believe in a God that has been created.

The God who made the universe and all life was not Himself created; He is eternal. This is the primary difference between a universe that has a beginning and God who has no beginning. The universe came into being; God did not. This is the premise of the entire gospel of John:

John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was with God in the beginning. 3 Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. (NIV)

Only God is self-existent and has no first cause. This is obvious and self-evident by the observable universe. It would take a mind of such infinite wisdom, that it would be impossible for a human mind to conceive of such intelligence. We do not know how He was able to build the universe that we see (not to mention what we cannot see); we know only that a transcendent being of infinite power is the only possible source.

To put forth the nauseous ever increasing premise that matter and energy can self-generate themselves into intelligent thinking beings, is utter lunacy. Beginning with the theory of evolution—where all life came from a single cell that mutated randomly by itself, until it became one species that mutated into other species, that mutated into intelligent beings—it is not only the kind of fantasy that we see in Hollywood movies but is insanity at its very essence. Although evolution of one species into a new species has never been scientifically proven or observed, evolution is nevertheless being taught as a certainty in schools and universities all over the world.

Let us remember that in all the history of the human species, no person has ever observed anything coming into existence by itself or from nothing.

In spite of this, the scientific world works harder to prove that God does not exist and the universe created itself, rather than to simply acknowledge the obvious: God made the universe!

We know that He exists by what He has made. When someone makes anything, the evidence of their creation is left behind and is verifiable proof that they made it.

Science is founded upon the basis of observable, provable data. The facts are that the data that is observable and provable demands that the universe has, as its first cause, an intelligence. Regardless of your term or definition—an eternal mind, Transcendent Creator, Supreme being, or simply God—the fact remains that all the evidence which exists in the universe, demands that its existence is a feat of engineering genius that can only be explained by an unlimited intelligence of immense power.

Many of the world’s greatest minds have conceded that there is no possibility that the universe could have come into existence by itself. The truth is that scientists and astronomers have only seen a glimpse of the total universe; and their knowledge of how it began is, at the present time, a great mystery.

To state that God is not necessary to have a universe, such as we observe, or that the universe came into being of its own from nothing is the most absurd theory ever put forth.

It seems that scientists today have lost something of the wisdom that their former colleagues had in times past. The first scientists, men of great wisdom: Isaac Newton, Galileo, Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Robert Boyle, Michael Faraday, William Kelvin, and Max Planck, to name a few, began with the obvious: God exists and is the source of the universe; now let’s try to understand how He did it.

The implications of God’s descriptions of the universe interests me a great deal. God is telling Job that He is the one who created the universe. It seems that the Lord is implying that the entire mastery of the profound universe is set before the earth as a public display of God’s power and intelligence. This would go hand in hand with the Psalms of David, in which he writes in describing the heavens:

Psalms 19:1-2 The universe declare the glory of God; And the Cosmos shows His handiwork. 2 every day it speaks to us, every night it increases our knowledge of God.[61]

There is much discussion on the subject of intelligent life somewhere else in the universe. It has been stated that if there were no other life anywhere else, that the universe would be a tremendous waste of space. Those who say such things are viewing the universe from the perspective of a naturalist. When God made the universe, He did so with a purpose. That purpose was to reveal who He is and His great power. When we read at the end of the Bible—the Book of Revelation—there is a great declaration that is heard in heaven, coming from all the creatures who have the ability to give praise to God.

Revelation 5:13 And all the creatures which are in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and those that are in the sea, and all that are in them, I heard saying: “Blessing and honor and glory and power Be to Him who sits on the throne, And to Jesus, the Lamb, forever and ever!”[62]

The book of Romans describes the universe as a stellar reminder everyday, to all human being, that God exists and the universe came into being and is constantly cared for and maintained by one true and Living God.

Romans 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse


NOTES
[1] 1. From dictionary.com, “mind”: “1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the human mind. 2. Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities. 3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence.”
2. Google definition, “mind”: “The element of a person that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness..”
[2] Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe, Peter D. Ward Donald Brownlee, Copernicus Books, 37 East 7th Street New York, NY 10003 www.copernicusbooks.com, ISBN 0-387-95289-6 (pbk.: alk. paper), Page 18.
[3] As determined by radio isotope dating of lunar rocks and meteorites. Heeren, Fred (2012-08-23). Show Me God (Kindle Locations 954-968). Day Star Publications. Kindle Edition.
[4] Gerald F. Joyce, “The RNA World: Life Before DNA and Protein,” Extraterrestrials— Where Are They?, edited by Ben Zuckerman and Michael H. Hart, Second Edition (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 144.
[5] 1. Paul Davies, (1998). “The Fifth Miracle; the search for the origin of life.” Penguin books.
2. S. J. Mojzis, (1996). “Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago”. Nature Page 384 (6604): 55–9.
[6] Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe, Peter D. Ward Donald Brownlee, Copernicus Books, 37 East 7th Street New York, NY 10003 www.copernicusbooks.com, ISBN 0-387-95289-6 (pbk.: alk. paper), Page 24
[7] Micheva, K. D., Busse, B., Weiler, N. C., O’Rourke, N., Smith, S. J (2010). “Single-Synapse Analysis of a Diverse Synapse Population: Proteomic Imaging Methods and Markers”. Neuron 68 (4): 639–653. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.09.024
[8] The universe is “just there, and that’s all” , Betrand Russell, page 175
[9] Stephen Hawking, George Ellis, (1973). The Large-Scale Structure of Space-Time. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20016-4.
[10] John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-34.
[11] Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
[12] See the chapter in this book: “Ph.d’s Who Believe in God and Creation. Sir John Houghton, Anthony Flew, Steven Weinberg, and other noted scientists in this chapter.
[13] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005, Pages 762-765
[14] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005, Pages 762-765
[15] Newton’s Principia for the common reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp.1–2). The quotation comes from a memorandum thought to have been written about 1714. As early as 1645 Ismaël Bullialdus had argued that any force exerted by the Sun on distant objects would have to follow an inverse-square law. However, he also dismissed the idea that any such force did exist. See, for example, Linton, Christopher M. (2004). From Eudoxus to Einstein—A History of Mathematical Astronomy. Cambridge.
[16] The date of the book of Job is before the book of Psalms, at 1000 B.C., or 2,687 years before Newton.
[17] Revelation 12:4, Isaiah 14:12, Job 1:6
[18] Psalm 33:6
[19] 1. Wilde, S. A.; Valley, J. W.; Peck, W. H.; Graham C. M. (2001-01-11). “Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago”. Nature 409 (6817): 175–178. doi:10.1038/35051550. PMID 11196637.
2. Valley, John W.; Peck, William H.; Kin, Elizabeth M. (1999). “Zircons Are Forever”. The Outcrop, Geology Alumni Newsletter. University of Wisconsin-Madison. pp. 34–35. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
3. Wyche, S.; Nelson, D. R.; Riganti, A. (2004). “4350–3130 Ma detrital zircons in the Southern Cross Granite–Greenstone Terrane, Western Australia: implications for the early evolution of the Yilgarn Craton”. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 51 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1046/j.1400-0952.2003.01042.x
[20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_evolution_fossils
[21] Earth’s Shrinking Waistline”, The Geophysical Effects of the Earth’s Slowing Rotation.” By Donald L. Hamilton
[22] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean. Noaa.gov.
[23] 1. Qadri, Syed (2003). “Volume of Earth’s Oceans”. The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
2. Charette, Matthew; Smith, Walter H. F. (2010). “The volume of Earth’s ocean”. Oceanography 23 (2): 112–114. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.51. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
3. Drogin, Bob (August 2, 2009). “Mapping an ocean of species”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
[24] http://www.palomar.edu/oceanography/salty_ocean.htm
[25] Drogin, Bob (August 2, 2009). “Mapping an ocean of species”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
[26] Speculated, but not conclusive.
[27] 1. Ballard, Robert D., and Grassle, J. Frederick, “Incredible World of Deep-sea Rifts,” National Geographic, V. 156, No. 5, November 1979, pp. 680-705.
2. West, Susan, “Smokers, Red Worms, and Deep Sea Plumbing,” Science News, V. 117, No. 2, January 12, 1980, pp. 28-30.
3. Corliss, John B., et a]., “Submarine Thermal Springs on the Galapagos Rift,” Science, V. 203, No. 4385, March 16, 1979, pp. 1073-1083.
[28] 1. Cassan, A. et al. (January 11, 2012). “One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations”. Nature 481 (7380): 167–169. Bibcode:2012Natur.481..167C. doi:10.1038/nature10684. PMID 22237108. edit
2. “100 Billion Alien Planets Fill Our Milky Way Galaxy: Study”. Space.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
[29] Vergano, Dan (1 December 2010). “Universe holds billions more stars than previously thought”. USA Today. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
[30] Kevin O’Holleran1,∗ Mark R. Dennis2, Florian Flossmann1, and Miles J. Padgett1 1Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK and 2School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK† (Dated: April 30, 2008)
[31] Michio Kaku, “Is God a Mathematician”: All of a sudden we had super symmetric theories coming out of physics that then revolutionized mathematics, and so the goal of physics we believe is to find an equation perhaps no more than one inch long which will allow us to unify all the forces of nature and allow us to read the mind of God. And what is the key to that one inch equation? Super symmetry, a symmetry that comes out of physics, not mathematics, and has shocked the world of mathematics. But you see, all this is pure mathematics and so the final resolution could be that God is a mathematician. And when you read the mind of God, we actually have a candidate for the mind of God. The mind of God we believe is cosmic music, the music of strings resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace. That is the mind of God. Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jremlZvNDuk
[32] Hyperspace : A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension, Page: 331
[33] 1. John Roach (2007-02-13). “”No Two Snowflakes the Same” Likely True, Research Reveals”. National Geographic News. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
2. Jon Nelson (2008-09-26). “Origin of diversity in falling snow”. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
3. Kenneth Libbrecht (Winter 2004/2005). “Snowflake Science”. American Educator. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
[34] This image is used by permission as it is in the public domain because it contains materials that originally came from the United States Geological Survey, an agency of the United States Department of the Interior.
[35] Dr. Art’s Guide to Planet Earth. The Water Cycle.
[36] Oliver, John E. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Climatology. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6
[37] 1. Fink, Micah. “How Lightning Forms”. PBS.org. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
2. National Weather Service (2007). “Lightning Safety”. National Weather Service. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
[38] “Alnilam”. Jim Kaler’s Stars. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Campus. 2009
[39] 2,000 kilometers per second, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alnilam
[40] Serviss, G.P. (Garrett Putman) (2012-05-17). Curiosities of the Sky (Kindle Locations 588-591). . Kindle Edition.
[41] Author’s Translation
[42] Elizabeth Shanks Alexander, The Orality of Rabbinic Writing, in The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud, ed. Martin Jaffee, 2007. p. 39. This is attested to in numerous sources, such as Mishna Avot 1:1. The manner of teaching and memorization is described in B. Eruvin 54b.
[43] The source of this image is unknown as it appears on many sites that display information in the public domain. It appear that this image is public domain and is used with that belief. No copyright information is attached, nor an authors name for they are both unknown.
[44] 257 miles per second X 60 seconds = 15,420 X 60 minutes = 925,200
[45] Professor Charles Burckhalter, Astronomer and past President in of the Chabot Observatory in Oakland California
[46] Used by Permission: By http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:B00P & me (SAE1962 10:04, 2 April 2008 (UTC)) (English Wikipedia, but modified it.) [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
[47] Wilkins, Jamie; Dunn, Robert (2006). 300 Astronomical Objects: A Visual Reference to the Universe (1st ed.). Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-175-3
[48] Pieter van Dokkum, chairman, Professor, Astronomy and Physics/Chairman, Department of Astronomy, Yale university.
[49] Author’s Translation
[50] http://www.bigsiteofamazingfacts.com/how-long-would-it-take-to-count-to-a-billion
[51] 2:00 minutes into the video: http://powertochange.com/itv/spirituality/big-bang-science-and-faith/
[52] 1. Singer, Charles (1941). A Short History of Science to the Nineteenth Century. Clarendon Press. p. 217
2. Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History. iUniverse. p. 155. ISBN 0-595-36877-8.
3. Finocchiaro (2007).
[53] Galileo Galilei, The Assayer, as translated by Stillman Drake (1957), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo pp. 237-8
[54] Merriam-Webster Dictionary 2012
[55] Authors Translation
[56] Ibid.
[57] N. H. Fletcher. The Physics of Rainclouds. (Cambridge University Press,1966)
[58] Ibid.
[59] From a comment made by Dr. John Lennox during his debate with Professor Richard Dawkins on the book “The God Delusion”
[60] Ibid.
[61] Authors Translation
[62] Ibid.